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The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5

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Abstract
We present Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the (CO)-C-12(32) emission from two far-infrared luminous QSOs at z similar to 2.5 selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Tetrahertz Large Area Survey. These far-infrared bright QSOs were selected to have supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses similar to those thought to reside in submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) at z similar to 2.5, making them ideal candidates as systems in the potential transition from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy phase to a submillimetre faint, unobscured, QSO. We detect (CO)-C-12(32) emission from both QSOs and we compare their baryonic, dynamical and SMBH masses to those of SMGs at the same epoch. We find that these far-infrared bright QSOs have similar dynamical but lower gas masses than SMGs. We combine our results with literature values and find that at a fixed LFIR, far-infrared bright QSOs have similar to 50 +/- 30 per cent less warm/dense gas than SMGs. Taken together with previous results, which show that QSOs lack the extended, cool reservoir of gas seen in SMGs, this suggests that far-infrared bright QSOs are at a different evolutionary stage. This is consistent with the hypothesis that far-infrared bright QSOs represent a short (similar to 1Myr) but ubiquitous phase in the transformation of dust-obscured, gas-rich, starburst-dominated SMGs into unobscured, gas-poor, QSOs.
Keywords
QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS, SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, HOST GALAXIES, BLACK-HOLE MASS, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, quasars: individual: J0911+0027, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, quasars: individual: J0908-0034, quasars: emission lines, HIGH-REDSHIFT, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, HERSCHEL ATLAS, MAJOR MERGERS

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MLA
Simpson, JM, I Smail, AM Swinbank, et al. “The Evolutionary Connection Between QSOs and SMGs : Molecular Gas in Far-infrared Luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 426.4 (2012): 3201–3210. Print.
APA
Simpson, JM, Smail, I., Swinbank, A., Alexander, D., Auld, R., Baes, M., Bonfield, D., et al. (2012). The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 426(4), 3201–3210.
Chicago author-date
Simpson, JM, I Smail, AM Swinbank, DM Alexander, R Auld, Maarten Baes, DG Bonfield, et al. 2012. “The Evolutionary Connection Between QSOs and SMGs : Molecular Gas in Far-infrared Luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 426 (4): 3201–3210.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Simpson, JM, I Smail, AM Swinbank, DM Alexander, R Auld, Maarten Baes, DG Bonfield, DL Clements, A Cooray, KEK Coppin, ALR Danielson, A Dariush, L Dunne, G de Zotti, CM Harrison, R Hopwood, C Hoyos, E Ibar, RJ Ivison, MJ Jarvis, A Lapi, SJ Maddox, MJ Page, DA Riechers, E Valiante, and PPD van der Werf. 2012. “The Evolutionary Connection Between QSOs and SMGs : Molecular Gas in Far-infrared Luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 426 (4): 3201–3210.
Vancouver
1.
Simpson J, Smail I, Swinbank A, Alexander D, Auld R, Baes M, et al. The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2012;426(4):3201–10.
IEEE
[1]
J. Simpson et al., “The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 426, no. 4, pp. 3201–3210, 2012.
@article{3075213,
  abstract     = {We present Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the (CO)-C-12(32) emission from two far-infrared luminous QSOs at z similar to 2.5 selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Tetrahertz Large Area Survey. These far-infrared bright QSOs were selected to have supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses similar to those thought to reside in submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) at z similar to 2.5, making them ideal candidates as systems in the potential transition from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy phase to a submillimetre faint, unobscured, QSO. We detect (CO)-C-12(32) emission from both QSOs and we compare their baryonic, dynamical and SMBH masses to those of SMGs at the same epoch. We find that these far-infrared bright QSOs have similar dynamical but lower gas masses than SMGs. We combine our results with literature values and find that at a fixed LFIR, far-infrared bright QSOs have similar to 50 +/- 30 per cent less warm/dense gas than SMGs. Taken together with previous results, which show that QSOs lack the extended, cool reservoir of gas seen in SMGs, this suggests that far-infrared bright QSOs are at a different evolutionary stage. This is consistent with the hypothesis that far-infrared bright QSOs represent a short (similar to 1Myr) but ubiquitous phase in the transformation of dust-obscured, gas-rich, starburst-dominated SMGs into unobscured, gas-poor, QSOs.},
  author       = {Simpson, JM and Smail, I and Swinbank, AM and Alexander, DM and Auld, R and Baes, Maarten and Bonfield, DG and Clements, DL and Cooray, A and Coppin, KEK and Danielson, ALR and Dariush, A and Dunne, L and de Zotti, G and Harrison, CM and Hopwood, R and Hoyos, C and Ibar, E and Ivison, RJ and Jarvis, MJ and Lapi, A and Maddox, SJ and Page, MJ and Riechers, DA and Valiante, E and van der Werf, PPD},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS,SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES,STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,HOST GALAXIES,BLACK-HOLE MASS,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,quasars: individual: J0911+0027,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: formation,quasars: individual: J0908-0034,quasars: emission lines,HIGH-REDSHIFT,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,HERSCHEL ATLAS,MAJOR MERGERS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {3201--3210},
  title        = {The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21941.x},
  volume       = {426},
  year         = {2012},
}

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