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The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5

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Abstract
We present Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the (CO)-C-12(32) emission from two far-infrared luminous QSOs at z similar to 2.5 selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Tetrahertz Large Area Survey. These far-infrared bright QSOs were selected to have supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses similar to those thought to reside in submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) at z similar to 2.5, making them ideal candidates as systems in the potential transition from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy phase to a submillimetre faint, unobscured, QSO. We detect (CO)-C-12(32) emission from both QSOs and we compare their baryonic, dynamical and SMBH masses to those of SMGs at the same epoch. We find that these far-infrared bright QSOs have similar dynamical but lower gas masses than SMGs. We combine our results with literature values and find that at a fixed LFIR, far-infrared bright QSOs have similar to 50 +/- 30 per cent less warm/dense gas than SMGs. Taken together with previous results, which show that QSOs lack the extended, cool reservoir of gas seen in SMGs, this suggests that far-infrared bright QSOs are at a different evolutionary stage. This is consistent with the hypothesis that far-infrared bright QSOs represent a short (similar to 1Myr) but ubiquitous phase in the transformation of dust-obscured, gas-rich, starburst-dominated SMGs into unobscured, gas-poor, QSOs.
Keywords
QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS, SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, HOST GALAXIES, BLACK-HOLE MASS, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, quasars: individual: J0911+0027, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, quasars: individual: J0908-0034, quasars: emission lines, HIGH-REDSHIFT, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, HERSCHEL ATLAS, MAJOR MERGERS

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Chicago
Simpson, JM, I Smail, AM Swinbank, DM Alexander, R Auld, Maarten Baes, DG Bonfield, et al. 2012. “The Evolutionary Connection Between QSOs and SMGs : Molecular Gas in Far-infrared Luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 426 (4): 3201–3210.
APA
Simpson, JM, Smail, I., Swinbank, A., Alexander, D., Auld, R., Baes, M., Bonfield, D., et al. (2012). The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 426(4), 3201–3210.
Vancouver
1.
Simpson J, Smail I, Swinbank A, Alexander D, Auld R, Baes M, et al. The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2012;426(4):3201–10.
MLA
Simpson, JM, I Smail, AM Swinbank, et al. “The Evolutionary Connection Between QSOs and SMGs : Molecular Gas in Far-infrared Luminous QSOs at z ∼ 2.5.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 426.4 (2012): 3201–3210. Print.
@article{3075213,
  abstract     = {We present Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the (CO)-C-12(32) emission from two far-infrared luminous QSOs at z similar to 2.5 selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Tetrahertz Large Area Survey. These far-infrared bright QSOs were selected to have supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses similar to those thought to reside in submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) at z similar to 2.5, making them ideal candidates as systems in the potential transition from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy phase to a submillimetre faint, unobscured, QSO. We detect (CO)-C-12(32) emission from both QSOs and we compare their baryonic, dynamical and SMBH masses to those of SMGs at the same epoch. We find that these far-infrared bright QSOs have similar dynamical but lower gas masses than SMGs. We combine our results with literature values and find that at a fixed LFIR, far-infrared bright QSOs have similar to 50 +/- 30 per cent less warm/dense gas than SMGs. Taken together with previous results, which show that QSOs lack the extended, cool reservoir of gas seen in SMGs, this suggests that far-infrared bright QSOs are at a different evolutionary stage. This is consistent with the hypothesis that far-infrared bright QSOs represent a short (similar to 1Myr) but ubiquitous phase in the transformation of dust-obscured, gas-rich, starburst-dominated SMGs into unobscured, gas-poor, QSOs.},
  author       = {Simpson, JM and Smail, I and Swinbank, AM and Alexander, DM and Auld, R and Baes, Maarten and Bonfield, DG and Clements, DL and Cooray, A and Coppin, KEK and Danielson, ALR and Dariush, A and Dunne, L and de Zotti, G and Harrison, CM and Hopwood, R and Hoyos, C and Ibar, E and Ivison, RJ and Jarvis, MJ and Lapi, A and Maddox, SJ and Page, MJ and Riechers, DA and Valiante, E and van der Werf, PPD},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {3201--3210},
  title        = {The evolutionary connection between QSOs and SMGs : molecular gas in far-infrared luminous QSOs at z \ensuremath{\sim} 2.5},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21941.x},
  volume       = {426},
  year         = {2012},
}

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