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Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine

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Abstract
Objective-To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms. Animals-Approximately 7700 cows from 72 farms. Procedures-Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]-deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects. Results-Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.
Keywords
STRAIN, TRIALS, EFFICACY, ANTIBODIES, GE, FIELD, DUTCH DAIRY FARMS, HERPESVIRUS TYPE-1, BHV1, RISK

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Chicago
Ampe, Bart, Luc Duchateau, Nico Speybroeck, Dirk Berkvens, Alain Dupont, Pierre Kerkhofs, Etienne Thiry, and Marc Dispas. 2012. “Assessment of the Long-term Effect of Vaccination on Transmission of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus in Cattle Herds Hyperimmunized with Glycoprotein E-deleted Marker Vaccine.” American Journal of Veterinary Research 73 (11): 1787–1793.
APA
Ampe, B., Duchateau, L., Speybroeck, N., Berkvens, D., Dupont, A., Kerkhofs, P., Thiry, E., et al. (2012). Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH, 73(11), 1787–1793.
Vancouver
1.
Ampe B, Duchateau L, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Dupont A, Kerkhofs P, et al. Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2012;73(11):1787–93.
MLA
Ampe, Bart, Luc Duchateau, Nico Speybroeck, et al. “Assessment of the Long-term Effect of Vaccination on Transmission of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus in Cattle Herds Hyperimmunized with Glycoprotein E-deleted Marker Vaccine.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 73.11 (2012): 1787–1793. Print.
@article{3066275,
  abstract     = {Objective-To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms.
Animals-Approximately 7700 cows from 72 farms. 
Procedures-Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]-deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects.
Results-Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.},
  author       = {Ampe, Bart and Duchateau, Luc and Speybroeck, Nico and Berkvens, Dirk and Dupont, Alain and Kerkhofs, Pierre and Thiry, Etienne and Dispas, Marc},
  issn         = {0002-9645},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {STRAIN,TRIALS,EFFICACY,ANTIBODIES,GE,FIELD,DUTCH DAIRY FARMS,HERPESVIRUS TYPE-1,BHV1,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1787--1793},
  title        = {Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.11.1787},
  volume       = {73},
  year         = {2012},
}

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