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Effect of cooking on phthalate concentrations in food

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Abstract
Introduction: Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds which are mainly used as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Another application is the use of phthalates in printing inks and adhesives. Human exposure occurs mainly via food intake and can cause a wide range of negative health effects (e.g. disruption of the endocrine system). In this study, the effect of cooking at home on phthalate concentrations in various foodstuffs was investigated. Methods and materials: Food products that are eaten regularly by the Belgian population – i.e. potato, rice, pasta, carrot, cauliflower, onion, paprika, minced meat, pork chop and salmon – were purchased from Belgian shops. In most cases, several cultivars, varieties and/or packaging types of a food product were bought. Food samples were boiled, steamed, fried, deep-fried and/or grilled in a way a normal Belgian household would do. Phthalate concentrations were determined in uncooked as well as in cooked food products via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight phthalates were taken into account: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Results: DMP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were rarely present (less or equal than/to 50 % detectable) in the investigated food samples. On the other hand, DEP, DiBP, BBP and DEHP were regularly detected, but differences in detection frequencies were noticed between uncooked and cooked food samples. For example, DEHP was determined in all uncooked foods, but after cooking, this compound was detectable in only 65.4 % of the samples. Phthalate concentrations in food usually declined after cooking, which is demonstrated in Figure 1 for DiBP in pasta samples. Furthermore, differences in phthalate concentrations were observed between cultivars, varieties and/or packaging types of a certain food product (see also Figure 1). Conclusions: In general, cooking processes at home cause a decline in phthalate concentrations in food. Besides the effect of cooking, another variety, cultivar or packaging type of a foodstuff can result in different phthalate levels.

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Chicago
Fierens, Tine, Mirja Van Holderbeke, Guido Vanermen, Stefaan De Henauw, and Isabelle Sioen. 2012. “Effect of Cooking on Phthalate Concentrations in Food.” In Food Packaging, 5th International Symposium, Abstracts, 66–67. Berlin, Germany: ILSI Europe.
APA
Fierens, T., Van Holderbeke, M., Vanermen, G., De Henauw, S., & Sioen, I. (2012). Effect of cooking on phthalate concentrations in food. Food Packaging, 5th International symposium, Abstracts (pp. 66–67). Presented at the 5th International symposium on Food Packaging, Berlin, Germany: ILSI Europe.
Vancouver
1.
Fierens T, Van Holderbeke M, Vanermen G, De Henauw S, Sioen I. Effect of cooking on phthalate concentrations in food. Food Packaging, 5th International symposium, Abstracts. Berlin, Germany: ILSI Europe; 2012. p. 66–7.
MLA
Fierens, Tine, Mirja Van Holderbeke, Guido Vanermen, et al. “Effect of Cooking on Phthalate Concentrations in Food.” Food Packaging, 5th International Symposium, Abstracts. Berlin, Germany: ILSI Europe, 2012. 66–67. Print.
@inproceedings{3063924,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds which are mainly used as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Another application is the use of phthalates in printing inks and adhesives. Human exposure occurs mainly via food intake and can cause a wide range of negative health effects (e.g. disruption of the endocrine system). In this study, the effect of cooking at home on phthalate concentrations in various foodstuffs was investigated.
Methods and materials: Food products that are eaten regularly by the Belgian population -- i.e. potato, rice, pasta, carrot, cauliflower, onion, paprika, minced meat, pork chop and salmon -- were purchased from Belgian shops. In most cases, several cultivars, varieties and/or packaging types of a food product were bought. Food samples were boiled, steamed, fried, deep-fried and/or grilled in a way a normal Belgian household would do. Phthalate concentrations were determined in uncooked as well as in cooked food products via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight phthalates were taken into account: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP).
Results: DMP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were rarely present (less or equal than/to 50 \% detectable) in the investigated food samples. On the other hand, DEP, DiBP, BBP and DEHP were regularly detected, but differences in detection frequencies were noticed between uncooked and cooked food samples. For example, DEHP was determined in all uncooked foods, but after cooking, this compound was detectable in only 65.4 \% of the samples. Phthalate concentrations in food usually declined after cooking, which is demonstrated in Figure 1 for DiBP in pasta samples. Furthermore, differences in phthalate concentrations were observed between cultivars, varieties and/or packaging types of a certain food product (see also Figure 1).
Conclusions: In general, cooking processes at home cause a decline in phthalate concentrations in food. Besides the effect of cooking, another variety, cultivar or packaging type of a foodstuff can result in different phthalate levels.},
  author       = {Fierens, Tine and Van Holderbeke, Mirja and Vanermen, Guido and De Henauw, Stefaan and Sioen, Isabelle},
  booktitle    = {Food Packaging, 5th International symposium, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Berlin, Germany},
  pages        = {66--67},
  publisher    = {ILSI Europe},
  title        = {Effect of cooking on phthalate concentrations in food},
  year         = {2012},
}