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Relative contribution of feed, supplements and water to mineral supply on organic dairy farms in Flanders

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Abstract
Introduction: Previous research (Janssens et al., 2007) revealed mineral deficiencies among organic dairy cattle in Flanders. The aim of the current project is to determine where in the cycle soil-feed-cow-faeces mineral uptake and availability is low. Of particular interest is the relation between feed characteristics and mineral bio-availability in the digestive tract, which may ultimately lead to a more efficient use of mineral supplementation. The preliminary results presented here reveal the relative contribution of feeds, supplements and drinking water to mineral supply and their relation to mineral status of cattle on these farms. Animals, material and methods: Ten Flemish organic dairy farms were sampled for feed and water; on each farm, blood was collected from 5 lactating cows. Based on feed and water mineral analyses, estimation of water uptake and information on mineral supplementation, total mineral supply was calculated for early lactation and evaluated according to NRC (2001) requirements. Means were compared with anova procedures, whereas multivariate regression analysis was used to find formulae to predict mineral bio-availability through dietary nutrient composition. Results and discussion: Rations in organic dairy farms typically contained much less corn silage than in conventional farms. The main component of the rations was grass/clover which proved to be much richer in minerals than corn. Nevertheless, mineral supplements were needed especially to provide adequate amounts of trace elements such as Se, Cu and I. The contribution of water to mineral supply was negligible. On average, rations had concentrations of macro minerals above requirements except for Na during summer. Especially during summer, supply of K was high. Yet, individual results of farms show inadequate supply of Ca, Na and S and excessive amounts of K, Na and S. Excessive dietary concentrations of Fe as well as elevated Mo on some farms require attention, given their antagonistic effect on for instance Cu. Mean supply of Se was marginal while low amounts of Zn, Cu, Se and I were registered on individual farms. Blood analysis of cattle showed deficiencies of Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, and Se. For some minerals, e.g. Cu, their status in the animals could be predicted on the basis of dietary nutrient composition (other than the level of the respective mineral), suggesting a tool for improving mineral bioavailability beyond supplementation only. Conclusion: Although all farms used mineral supplements in their rations, mineral deficiencies were demonstrated through feed and blood analysis, suggesting insufficient supplementation or eventually overestimation of mineral bioavailability. The impact of water on mineral supply was negligible. References: Janssens, G.; Vicca, J.; Beeckman A.; Van Paemel M.; Fievez V. 2007. Seasonal changes in mineral status in organic dairy herds as affected by feeding management. In: Coenen, M.; Vervuert, I. (eds.). Proceedings of the 11th ESVCN Congress; Leipzig. NRC (2001). Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: Seventh revised edition. Washington, National Academy Press.

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MLA
Sobry, Luk, Veronique Dermauw, Wim Govaerts, et al. “Relative Contribution of Feed, Supplements and Water to Mineral Supply on Organic Dairy Farms in Flanders.” Proceedings of 16th Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition. Ed. Roman Szymeczko et al. European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN), 2012. 150–150. Print.
APA
Sobry, L., Dermauw, V., Govaerts, W., Du Laing, G., & Janssens, G. (2012). Relative contribution of feed, supplements and water to mineral supply on organic dairy farms in Flanders. In R. Szymeczko, C. Iben, K. Burlikowska, & B. Sitkowska (Eds.), Proceedings of 16th congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (pp. 150–150). Presented at the 16th Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN).
Chicago author-date
Sobry, Luk, Veronique Dermauw, Wim Govaerts, Gijs Du Laing, and Geert Janssens. 2012. “Relative Contribution of Feed, Supplements and Water to Mineral Supply on Organic Dairy Farms in Flanders.” In Proceedings of 16th Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, ed. Roman Szymeczko, Christine Iben, Katarzyna Burlikowska, and Beata Sitkowska, 150–150. European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sobry, Luk, Veronique Dermauw, Wim Govaerts, Gijs Du Laing, and Geert Janssens. 2012. “Relative Contribution of Feed, Supplements and Water to Mineral Supply on Organic Dairy Farms in Flanders.” In Proceedings of 16th Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, ed. Roman Szymeczko, Christine Iben, Katarzyna Burlikowska, and Beata Sitkowska, 150–150. European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN).
Vancouver
1.
Sobry L, Dermauw V, Govaerts W, Du Laing G, Janssens G. Relative contribution of feed, supplements and water to mineral supply on organic dairy farms in Flanders. In: Szymeczko R, Iben C, Burlikowska K, Sitkowska B, editors. Proceedings of 16th congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition. European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN); 2012. p. 150–150.
IEEE
[1]
L. Sobry, V. Dermauw, W. Govaerts, G. Du Laing, and G. Janssens, “Relative contribution of feed, supplements and water to mineral supply on organic dairy farms in Flanders,” in Proceedings of 16th congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, Bydgoszcz, Poland, 2012, pp. 150–150.
@inproceedings{3055616,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Previous research (Janssens et al., 2007) revealed mineral deficiencies among organic dairy cattle in Flanders. The aim of the current project is to determine where in the cycle soil-feed-cow-faeces mineral uptake and availability is low. Of particular interest is the relation between feed characteristics and mineral bio-availability in the digestive tract, which may ultimately lead to a more efficient use of mineral supplementation. The preliminary results presented here reveal the relative contribution of feeds, supplements and drinking water to mineral supply and their relation to mineral status of cattle on these farms.
Animals, material and methods: Ten Flemish organic dairy farms were sampled for feed and water; on each farm, blood was collected from 5 lactating cows. Based on feed and water mineral analyses, estimation of water uptake and information on mineral supplementation, total mineral supply was calculated for early lactation and evaluated according to NRC (2001) requirements. Means were compared with anova procedures, whereas multivariate regression analysis was used to find formulae to predict mineral bio-availability through dietary nutrient composition.
Results and discussion: Rations in organic dairy farms typically contained much less corn silage than in conventional farms. The main component of the rations was grass/clover which proved to be much richer in minerals than corn. Nevertheless, mineral supplements were needed especially to provide adequate amounts of trace elements such as Se, Cu and I. The contribution of water to mineral supply was negligible. On average, rations had concentrations of macro minerals above requirements except for Na during summer. Especially during summer, supply of K was high. Yet, individual results of farms show inadequate supply of Ca, Na and S and excessive amounts of K, Na and S. Excessive dietary concentrations of Fe as well as elevated Mo on some farms require attention, given their antagonistic effect on for instance Cu. Mean supply of Se was marginal while low amounts of Zn, Cu, Se and I were registered on individual farms. Blood analysis of cattle showed deficiencies of Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, and Se. For some minerals, e.g. Cu, their status in the animals could be predicted on the basis of dietary nutrient composition (other than the level of the respective mineral), suggesting a tool for improving mineral bioavailability beyond supplementation only.
Conclusion: Although all farms used mineral supplements in their rations, mineral deficiencies were demonstrated through feed and blood analysis, suggesting insufficient supplementation or eventually overestimation of mineral bioavailability. The impact of water on mineral supply was negligible.
References: Janssens, G.; Vicca, J.; Beeckman A.; Van Paemel M.; Fievez V. 2007. Seasonal changes in mineral status in organic dairy herds as affected by feeding management. In: Coenen, M.; Vervuert, I. (eds.). Proceedings of the 11th ESVCN Congress; Leipzig.
NRC (2001). Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: Seventh revised edition. Washington, National Academy Press.},
  author       = {Sobry, Luk and Dermauw, Veronique and Govaerts, Wim and Du Laing, Gijs and Janssens, Geert},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of 16th congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition},
  editor       = {Szymeczko, Roman and Iben, Christine and Burlikowska, Katarzyna and Sitkowska, Beata},
  isbn         = {9788392173229},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Bydgoszcz, Poland},
  pages        = {150--150},
  publisher    = {European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (ESVCN)},
  title        = {Relative contribution of feed, supplements and water to mineral supply on organic dairy farms in Flanders},
  year         = {2012},
}