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Job strain and tobacco smoking : an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 European studies

(2012) PLOS ONE. 7(7).
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Abstract
Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.
Keywords
PATIENT DATA, WHITEHALL-II, FINNISH PUBLIC-SECTOR, ADVERSE HEALTH BEHAVIORS, RISK, WORK STRESS, ASSOCIATIONS, OVERTIME, TRIALS

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Chicago
Heikkilä, Katriina, Solja T Nyberg, Eleonor I Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Dirk De Bacquer, Jakob B Bjorner, Sébastien Bonenfant, et al. 2012. “Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking : an Individual-participant Data Meta-analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies.” Plos One 7 (7).
APA
Heikkilä, K., Nyberg, S. T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., De Bacquer, D., Bjorner, J. B., Bonenfant, S., et al. (2012). Job strain and tobacco smoking : an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 European studies. PLOS ONE, 7(7).
Vancouver
1.
Heikkilä K, Nyberg ST, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, De Bacquer D, Bjorner JB, et al. Job strain and tobacco smoking : an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 European studies. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(7).
MLA
Heikkilä, Katriina, Solja T Nyberg, Eleonor I Fransson, et al. “Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking : an Individual-participant Data Meta-analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies.” PLOS ONE 7.7 (2012): n. pag. Print.
@article{3053206,
  abstract     = {Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. 
Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17\% reported job strain, 42\% were never smokers, 33\% ex-smokers and 25\% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95\% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. 
Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.},
  articleno    = {e35463},
  author       = {Heikkil{\"a}, Katriina and Nyberg, Solja T and Fransson, Eleonor I and Alfredsson, Lars and De Bacquer, Dirk and Bjorner, Jakob B and Bonenfant, S{\'e}bastien and Borritz, Marianne and Burr, Hermann and Clays, Els and Casini, Annalisa and Dragano, Nico and Erbel, Raimund and Geuskens, Goedele A and Goldberg, Marcel and Hooftman, Wendela E and Houtman, Irene L and Joensuu, Matti and J{\"o}ckel, Karl-Heinz and Kittel, France and Knutsson, Anders and Koskenvuo, Markku and Koskinen, Aki and Kouvonen, Anne and Leineweber, Constanze and Lunau, Thorsten and Madsen, Ida EH and Hanson, Linda L Magnusson and Marmot, Michael G and Nielsen, Martin L and Nordin, Maria and Pentti, Jaana and Salo, Paula and Rugulies, Reiner and Steptoe, Andrew and Siegrist, Johannes and Suominen, Sakari and Vahtera, Jussi and Virtanen, Marianna and V{\"a}{\"a}n{\"a}nen, Ari and Westerholm, Peter and Westerlund, Hugo and Zins, Marie and Theorell, T{\"o}res and Hamer, Mark and Ferrie, Jane E and Singh-Manoux, Archana and Batty, G David and Kivim{\"a}ki, Mika},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {PATIENT DATA,WHITEHALL-II,FINNISH PUBLIC-SECTOR,ADVERSE HEALTH BEHAVIORS,RISK,WORK STRESS,ASSOCIATIONS,OVERTIME,TRIALS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {7},
  title        = {Job strain and tobacco smoking : an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 European studies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035463},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2012},
}

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