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A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs

(2012) PLOS ONE. 7(8).
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Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. Methods: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases)/sampling (controls). The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR) for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161) and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301) were included in the study. Results: Main findings were that 1) alcohol in general (all the concentrations together) caused an elevated crash risk; 2) cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3) when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.
Keywords
CANNABIS, DRIVERS, CRASHES, ORAL FLUID

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Citation

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MLA
Kuypers, Kim et al. “A Case-control Study Estimating Accident Risk for Alcohol, Medicines and Illegal Drugs.” PLOS ONE 7.8 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Kuypers, K., Legrand, S.-A., Ramaekers, J. G., & Verstraete, A. (2012). A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs. PLOS ONE, 7(8).
Chicago author-date
Kuypers, Kim, Sara-Ann Legrand, Johannes Gerardus Ramaekers, and Alain Verstraete. 2012. “A Case-control Study Estimating Accident Risk for Alcohol, Medicines and Illegal Drugs.” Plos One 7 (8).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kuypers, Kim, Sara-Ann Legrand, Johannes Gerardus Ramaekers, and Alain Verstraete. 2012. “A Case-control Study Estimating Accident Risk for Alcohol, Medicines and Illegal Drugs.” Plos One 7 (8).
Vancouver
1.
Kuypers K, Legrand S-A, Ramaekers JG, Verstraete A. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(8).
IEEE
[1]
K. Kuypers, S.-A. Legrand, J. G. Ramaekers, and A. Verstraete, “A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs,” PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, 2012.
@article{3040163,
  abstract     = {{Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. 
Methods: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases)/sampling (controls). The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR) for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161) and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301) were included in the study. 
Results: Main findings were that 1) alcohol in general (all the concentrations together) caused an elevated crash risk; 2) cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3) when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. 
Conclusion: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.}},
  articleno    = {{e43496}},
  author       = {{Kuypers, Kim and Legrand, Sara-Ann and Ramaekers, Johannes Gerardus and Verstraete, Alain}},
  issn         = {{1932-6203}},
  journal      = {{PLOS ONE}},
  keywords     = {{CANNABIS,DRIVERS,CRASHES,ORAL FLUID}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{8}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043496}},
  volume       = {{7}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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