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Tinnitus severity and the relation to depressive symptoms : a critical study

Els Ooms (UGent) , Reitske Meganck (UGent) , Stijn Vanheule (UGent) , Bart Vinck (UGent) , Jean-Baptiste Watelet (UGent) and Ingeborg Dhooge (UGent)
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Abstract
Objective. In this study, the authors investigated whether tinnitus severity is a problem related to depression. If so, the following 2 conditions should be fulfilled: first, there should be evidence for the presence of moderate to severe depressive symptomatology in a substantial group of tinnitus patients; second, there should be evidence of a substantial relationship between depressive symptoms and tinnitus severity. Study Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Department of the Ghent University Hospital. Subjects and Methods. In total, 136 consecutive help-seeking tinnitus patients were seen by a psychologist, an audiologist, and an ENT specialist. All patients filled in the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and underwent psychoacoustic measurement. Results. Mean scores indicate the presence of no or minimal depressive symptoms. There was a positive correlation (P < .01) between the BDI-II and the THI. No correlations were found between psychoacoustic measures and the self-report questionnaires. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the predictive role of the 3 components of depression (cognitive, somatic, and affective) in tinnitus severity. Results show that only the somatic depression subscale of the BDI-II significantly predicted tinnitus severity, which can be explained because of content overlap between the BDI-II and the THI. Conclusion. Tinnitus does not appear to be a problem related to depression. The authors did not find a substantial group of tinnitus patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The relation between depressive symptoms and tinnitus severity seems to be an artifact of content overlap between the BDI-II and the THI.
Keywords
PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS, tinnitus, subjective severity, LOUDNESS, ANXIETY, HANDICAP INVENTORY, INTERNET, depression

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Chicago
Ooms, Els, Reitske Meganck, Stijn Vanheule, Bart Vinck, Jean-Baptiste Watelet, and Ingeborg Dhooge. 2011. “Tinnitus Severity and the Relation to Depressive Symptoms : a Critical Study.” Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery 145 (2): 276–281.
APA
Ooms, E., Meganck, R., Vanheule, S., Vinck, B., Watelet, J.-B., & Dhooge, I. (2011). Tinnitus severity and the relation to depressive symptoms : a critical study. OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY, 145(2), 276–281.
Vancouver
1.
Ooms E, Meganck R, Vanheule S, Vinck B, Watelet J-B, Dhooge I. Tinnitus severity and the relation to depressive symptoms : a critical study. OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY. 2011;145(2):276–81.
MLA
Ooms, Els, Reitske Meganck, Stijn Vanheule, et al. “Tinnitus Severity and the Relation to Depressive Symptoms : a Critical Study.” OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY 145.2 (2011): 276–281. Print.
@article{3036281,
  abstract     = {Objective. In this study, the authors investigated whether tinnitus severity is a problem related to depression. If so, the following 2 conditions should be fulfilled: first, there should be evidence for the presence of moderate to severe depressive symptomatology in a substantial group of tinnitus patients; second, there should be evidence of a substantial relationship between depressive symptoms and tinnitus severity.
Study Design. Cross-sectional. 
Setting. Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Department of the Ghent University Hospital.
Subjects and Methods. In total, 136 consecutive help-seeking tinnitus patients were seen by a psychologist, an audiologist, and an ENT specialist. All patients filled in the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and underwent psychoacoustic measurement.
Results. Mean scores indicate the presence of no or minimal depressive symptoms. There was a positive correlation (P {\textlangle} .01) between the BDI-II and the THI. No correlations were found between psychoacoustic measures and the self-report questionnaires. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the predictive role of the 3 components of depression (cognitive, somatic, and affective) in tinnitus severity. Results show that only the somatic depression subscale of the BDI-II significantly predicted tinnitus severity, which can be explained because of content overlap between the BDI-II and the THI.
Conclusion. Tinnitus does not appear to be a problem related to depression. The authors did not find a substantial group of tinnitus patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The relation between depressive symptoms and tinnitus severity seems to be an artifact of content overlap between the BDI-II and the THI.},
  author       = {Ooms, Els and Meganck, Reitske and Vanheule, Stijn and Vinck, Bart and Watelet, Jean-Baptiste and Dhooge, Ingeborg},
  issn         = {0194-5998},
  journal      = {OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY},
  keyword      = {PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS,tinnitus,subjective severity,LOUDNESS,ANXIETY,HANDICAP INVENTORY,INTERNET,depression},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {276--281},
  title        = {Tinnitus severity and the relation to depressive symptoms : a critical study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599811403381},
  volume       = {145},
  year         = {2011},
}

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