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Tinnitus severity and its association with cognitive and somatic anxiety: a critical study

Els Ooms (UGent), Stijn Vanheule (UGent), Reitske Meganck (UGent), Bart Vinck (UGent), Jean-Baptiste Watelet (UGent) and Ingeborg Dhooge (UGent)
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Abstract
Tinnitus has been defined as a phantom auditory perception. Research indicates the necessity to make a distinction between the physical symptom and the subjective severity of the tinnitus symptom, since especially the latter seems to vary among patients. The relationship between tinnitus severity and psychological variables has been well established. Anxiety is considered to be an important variable for understanding the differences in the subjective tinnitus severity. Although many studies confirm the relationship between anxiety and tinnitus severity, most studies do not take the possibility of shared method variance and content overlap between questionnaires into account. Furthermore, anxiety is a broad concept and contains both a cognitive and somatic dimension. Research including both dimensions of anxiety in tinnitus population is rare. According to us two conditions must be fulfilled before theorization on the relation is useful: (1) the presence of clinically relevant cognitive and/or somatic anxiety, (2) evidence of a substantial or "real" relationship. In our sample, almost 60% reported more than average cognitive anxiety and 40.8% reported clinical relevant somatic anxiety. After controlling for content overlap between the questionnaires used, the relation between tinnitus severity and cognitive and somatic anxiety remains significant. Two hypothetical models concerning this relationship that deserve future research attention are described.
Keywords
HANDICAP INVENTORY, HOSPITAL ANXIETY, DEPRESSION SCALE, RELIABILITY, DISORDERS, VALIDITY, Tinnitus, Cognitive anxiety, Somatic anxiety, Shared method variance, Content overlap

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Chicago
Ooms, Els, Stijn Vanheule, Reitske Meganck, Bart Vinck, Jean-Baptiste Watelet, and Ingeborg Dhooge. 2012. “Tinnitus Severity and Its Association with Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety: a Critical Study.” European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology 269 (11): 2327–2333.
APA
Ooms, E., Vanheule, S., Meganck, R., Vinck, B., Watelet, J.-B., & Dhooge, I. (2012). Tinnitus severity and its association with cognitive and somatic anxiety: a critical study. EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY, 269(11), 2327–2333.
Vancouver
1.
Ooms E, Vanheule S, Meganck R, Vinck B, Watelet J-B, Dhooge I. Tinnitus severity and its association with cognitive and somatic anxiety: a critical study. EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY. 2012;269(11):2327–33.
MLA
Ooms, Els, Stijn Vanheule, Reitske Meganck, et al. “Tinnitus Severity and Its Association with Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety: a Critical Study.” EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY 269.11 (2012): 2327–2333. Print.
@article{3034323,
  abstract     = {Tinnitus has been defined as a phantom auditory perception. Research indicates the necessity to make a distinction between the physical symptom and the subjective severity of the tinnitus symptom, since especially the latter seems to vary among patients. The relationship between tinnitus severity and psychological variables has been well established. Anxiety is considered to be an important variable for understanding the differences in the subjective tinnitus severity. Although many studies confirm the relationship between anxiety and tinnitus severity, most studies do not take the possibility of shared method variance and content overlap between questionnaires into account. Furthermore, anxiety is a broad concept and contains both a cognitive and somatic dimension. Research including both dimensions of anxiety in tinnitus population is rare. According to us two conditions must be fulfilled before theorization on the relation is useful: (1) the presence of clinically relevant cognitive and/or somatic anxiety, (2) evidence of a substantial or {\textacutedbl}real{\textacutedbl} relationship. In our sample, almost 60\% reported more than average cognitive anxiety and 40.8\% reported clinical relevant somatic anxiety. After controlling for content overlap between the questionnaires used, the relation between tinnitus severity and cognitive and somatic anxiety remains significant. Two hypothetical models concerning this relationship that deserve future research attention are described.},
  author       = {Ooms, Els and Vanheule, Stijn and Meganck, Reitske and Vinck, Bart and Watelet, Jean-Baptiste and Dhooge, Ingeborg},
  issn         = {0937-4477},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF OTO-RHINO-LARYNGOLOGY},
  keyword      = {HANDICAP INVENTORY,HOSPITAL ANXIETY,DEPRESSION SCALE,RELIABILITY,DISORDERS,VALIDITY,Tinnitus,Cognitive anxiety,Somatic anxiety,Shared method variance,Content overlap},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {2327--2333},
  title        = {Tinnitus severity and its association with cognitive and somatic anxiety: a critical study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-011-1887-1},
  volume       = {269},
  year         = {2012},
}

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