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Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205

Ilse De Looze UGent, Maarten Baes UGent, TJ Parkin, CD Wilson, GJ Bendo, M Boquien, A Boselli, A Cooray, D Cormier, Jacopo Fritz, et al. (2012) MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 423(3). p.2359-2373
abstract
We present Herschel dust continuum, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO (32) observations and a search for [C ii] 158 m and [O i] 63 m spectral line emission for the brightest early-type dwarf satellite of Andromeda, NGC 205. While direct gas measurements [Mg similar to 1.5 x 10(6) M?, H i+ CO (10)] have proven to be inconsistent with theoretical predictions of the current gas reservoir in NGC 205 (>107 M?), we revise the missing interstellar medium mass problem based on new gas mass estimates (CO (32), [C ii], [O i]) and indirect measurements of the interstellar medium content through dust continuum emission. Based on Herschel observations, covering a wide wavelength range from 70 to 500 m, we are able to probe the entire dust content in NGC 205 ( M? at Td similar to 1822 K) and rule out the presence of a massive cold dust component ( M?, Td similar to 12 K), which was suggested based on millimetre observations from the inner 18.4 arcsec. Assuming a reasonable gas-to-dust ratio of similar to 400, the dust mass in NGC 205 translates into a gas mass Mg similar to 47 x 10(6) M?. The non-detection of [O i] and the low L[C II]-to-LCO(1-0) line intensity ratio (similar to 1850) imply that the molecular gas phase is well traced by CO molecules in NGC 205. We estimate an atomic gas mass of 1.5 x 10(4) M? associated with the [C ii] emitting photodissociation regions in NGC 205. From the partial CO (32) map of the northern region in NGC 205, we derive a molecular gas mass of M?. Upon comparison with the molecular gas mass estimated from CO (10) observations ( M?), we find most of the H2 gas in NGC 205 to be locked in diffuse regions of low density and/or temperature, characteristic for an interstellar medium with little star formation activity. New total gas mass estimates from Herschel dust continuum (47 x 10(6) M?), Herschel [C ii] line spectroscopic mapping (1.5 x 10(4) M?) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO (32) observations (7 x 10(5) M?), including the H i mass ( M?) and a correction for heavier elements, confirm the deficiency of the interstellar medium (gas+dust) in the inner regions of NGC 205, which is predicted to contain at least >107 M? of gas if we assume a reasonable star formation efficiency of 10 per cent and account for the mass return from planetary nebulae. In an attempt to explain the missing interstellar medium mass problem, we claim that efficient supernova feedback capable of expelling gas from the inner, star-forming regions to the outer regions and/or tidal interactions with M31 stripping the gas component from the galaxy provide the best explanation for the removal of a significant amount of gas and dust from NGC 205.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (review)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
galaxies: dwarf, ISM: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: individual: NGC 205, Local Group, infrared: ISM, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION, LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENTS, TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES, STAR-FORMATION HISTORIES, GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, LARGE-MAGELLANIC-CLOUD, LOCAL GROUP GALAXIES, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, VIRGO CLUSTER
journal title
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.
volume
423
issue
3
pages
2359 - 2373
Web of Science type
Review
Web of Science id
000305470100028
JCR category
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
JCR impact factor
5.521 (2012)
JCR rank
9/56 (2012)
JCR quartile
1 (2012)
ISSN
0035-8711
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21044.x
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
3001399
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-3001399
date created
2012-09-28 15:45:34
date last changed
2017-02-28 12:54:44
@article{3001399,
  abstract     = {We present Herschel dust continuum, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO (32) observations and a search for [C ii] 158 m and [O i] 63 m spectral line emission for the brightest early-type dwarf satellite of Andromeda, NGC 205. While direct gas measurements [Mg similar to 1.5 x 10(6) M?, H i+ CO (10)] have proven to be inconsistent with theoretical predictions of the current gas reservoir in NGC 205 ({\textrangle}107 M?), we revise the missing interstellar medium mass problem based on new gas mass estimates (CO (32), [C ii], [O i]) and indirect measurements of the interstellar medium content through dust continuum emission. Based on Herschel observations, covering a wide wavelength range from 70 to 500 m, we are able to probe the entire dust content in NGC 205 ( M? at Td similar to 1822 K) and rule out the presence of a massive cold dust component ( M?, Td similar to 12 K), which was suggested based on millimetre observations from the inner 18.4 arcsec. Assuming a reasonable gas-to-dust ratio of similar to 400, the dust mass in NGC 205 translates into a gas mass Mg similar to 47 x 10(6) M?. The non-detection of [O i] and the low L[C II]-to-LCO(1-0) line intensity ratio (similar to 1850) imply that the molecular gas phase is well traced by CO molecules in NGC 205. We estimate an atomic gas mass of 1.5 x 10(4) M? associated with the [C ii] emitting photodissociation regions in NGC 205. From the partial CO (32) map of the northern region in NGC 205, we derive a molecular gas mass of M?. Upon comparison with the molecular gas mass estimated from CO (10) observations ( M?), we find most of the H2 gas in NGC 205 to be locked in diffuse regions of low density and/or temperature, characteristic for an interstellar medium with little star formation activity. New total gas mass estimates from Herschel dust continuum (47 x 10(6) M?), Herschel [C ii] line spectroscopic mapping (1.5 x 10(4) M?) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO (32) observations (7 x 10(5) M?), including the H i mass ( M?) and a correction for heavier elements, confirm the deficiency of the interstellar medium (gas+dust) in the inner regions of NGC 205, which is predicted to contain at least {\textrangle}107 M? of gas if we assume a reasonable star formation efficiency of 10 per cent and account for the mass return from planetary nebulae. In an attempt to explain the missing interstellar medium mass problem, we claim that efficient supernova feedback capable of expelling gas from the inner, star-forming regions to the outer regions and/or tidal interactions with M31 stripping the gas component from the galaxy provide the best explanation for the removal of a significant amount of gas and dust from NGC 205.},
  author       = {De Looze, Ilse and Baes, Maarten and Parkin, TJ and Wilson, CD and Bendo, GJ and Boquien, M and Boselli, A and Cooray, A and Cormier, D and Fritz, Jacopo and Galliano, F and Gear, W and Gentile, Gianfranco and Lebouteiller, V and Madden, SC and Roussel, H and Sauvage, M and Smith, MWL and Spinoglio, L and Verstappen, Joris and Young, L},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keyword      = {galaxies: dwarf,ISM: evolution,galaxies: formation,galaxies: individual: NGC 205,Local Group,infrared: ISM,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION,LOW-METALLICITY ENVIRONMENTS,TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES,STAR-FORMATION HISTORIES,GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,LARGE-MAGELLANIC-CLOUD,LOCAL GROUP GALAXIES,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,VIRGO CLUSTER},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {2359--2373},
  title        = {Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21044.x},
  volume       = {423},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
De Looze, Ilse, Maarten Baes, TJ Parkin, CD Wilson, GJ Bendo, M Boquien, A Boselli, et al. 2012. “Herschel and JCMT Observations of the Early-type Dwarf Galaxy NGC 205.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 423 (3): 2359–2373.
APA
De Looze, I., Baes, M., Parkin, T., Wilson, C., Bendo, G., Boquien, M., Boselli, A., et al. (2012). Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 423(3), 2359–2373.
Vancouver
1.
De Looze I, Baes M, Parkin T, Wilson C, Bendo G, Boquien M, et al. Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2012;423(3):2359–73.
MLA
De Looze, Ilse, Maarten Baes, TJ Parkin, et al. “Herschel and JCMT Observations of the Early-type Dwarf Galaxy NGC 205.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 423.3 (2012): 2359–2373. Print.