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Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea

(2012) AQUATIC INVASIONS. 7(2). p.163-169
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Abstract
The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 was recorded for the first time in Northern Europe in summer 2005, while the first records in the North Sea date back to summer 2006. The first sightings in the Belgian part of the North Sea were made in August 2007 in the port of Zeebrugge, but most probably M. leidyi had already been present for a longer period in this area. The high densities in the port of Zeebrugge suggest that M. leidyi entered the Belgian marine waters via ballast water transport, comparable with the invasion in the Black and Caspian Seas and the Dutch part of the North Sea. In the period 2009-2011, M. leidyi was found in all ports and all along the Belgian coastline, up to 27 km offshore. Further offshore, no M. leidyi were found in zooplankton samples and small meshed otter trawl samples. Sightings of adult individuals in the coldest winter months imply that the species can survive Belgian winters. Highest densities (17 ind.m(-3)) were found in the Sluice dock in the port of Oostende. Along the coastline, average densities of 0.4 ind.m(-3) were recorded. As M. leidyi might previously have been misidentified on the basis of morphological features alone, we also determined the species with genetic identification tools. Taking into account the notorious impact of this species in its native and in other invaded waters, it is recommended to continue the monitoring of M. leidyi populations in the Belgian part of the North Sea.
Keywords
Belgian ports and coast, gelatinous zooplankton, Mnemiopsis leidyi, non-native species, ballast water, DNA sequencing, molecular probe, BLACK-SEA, NARRAGANSETT BAY, JELLYFISH BLOOMS, PREDATION, ZOOPLANKTON, PATTERNS, LOBATE, WATER

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MLA
Van Ginderdeuren, Karl, et al. “Distribution of the Invasive Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the Belgian Part of the North Sea.” AQUATIC INVASIONS, vol. 7, no. 2, 2012, pp. 163–69, doi:10.3391/ai.2012.7.2.002.
APA
Van Ginderdeuren, K., Hostens, K., Hoffman, S., Vansteenbrugge, L., Soenen, K., De Blauwe, H., … Vincx, M. (2012). Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea. AQUATIC INVASIONS, 7(2), 163–169. https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2012.7.2.002
Chicago author-date
Van Ginderdeuren, Karl, Kris Hostens, Stefan Hoffman, Lies Vansteenbrugge, Karen Soenen, Hans De Blauwe, Johan Robbens, and Magda Vincx. 2012. “Distribution of the Invasive Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the Belgian Part of the North Sea.” AQUATIC INVASIONS 7 (2): 163–69. https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2012.7.2.002.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Ginderdeuren, Karl, Kris Hostens, Stefan Hoffman, Lies Vansteenbrugge, Karen Soenen, Hans De Blauwe, Johan Robbens, and Magda Vincx. 2012. “Distribution of the Invasive Ctenophore Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the Belgian Part of the North Sea.” AQUATIC INVASIONS 7 (2): 163–169. doi:10.3391/ai.2012.7.2.002.
Vancouver
1.
Van Ginderdeuren K, Hostens K, Hoffman S, Vansteenbrugge L, Soenen K, De Blauwe H, et al. Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea. AQUATIC INVASIONS. 2012;7(2):163–9.
IEEE
[1]
K. Van Ginderdeuren et al., “Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea,” AQUATIC INVASIONS, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 163–169, 2012.
@article{2997671,
  abstract     = {{The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 was recorded for the first time in Northern Europe in summer 2005, while the first records in the North Sea date back to summer 2006. The first sightings in the Belgian part of the North Sea were made in August 2007 in the port of Zeebrugge, but most probably M. leidyi had already been present for a longer period in this area. The high densities in the port of Zeebrugge suggest that M. leidyi entered the Belgian marine waters via ballast water transport, comparable with the invasion in the Black and Caspian Seas and the Dutch part of the North Sea. In the period 2009-2011, M. leidyi was found in all ports and all along the Belgian coastline, up to 27 km offshore. Further offshore, no M. leidyi were found in zooplankton samples and small meshed otter trawl samples. Sightings of adult individuals in the coldest winter months imply that the species can survive Belgian winters. Highest densities (17 ind.m(-3)) were found in the Sluice dock in the port of Oostende. Along the coastline, average densities of 0.4 ind.m(-3) were recorded. As M. leidyi might previously have been misidentified on the basis of morphological features alone, we also determined the species with genetic identification tools. Taking into account the notorious impact of this species in its native and in other invaded waters, it is recommended to continue the monitoring of M. leidyi populations in the Belgian part of the North Sea.}},
  author       = {{Van Ginderdeuren, Karl and Hostens, Kris and Hoffman, Stefan and Vansteenbrugge, Lies and Soenen, Karen and De Blauwe, Hans and Robbens, Johan and Vincx, Magda}},
  issn         = {{1798-6540}},
  journal      = {{AQUATIC INVASIONS}},
  keywords     = {{Belgian ports and coast,gelatinous zooplankton,Mnemiopsis leidyi,non-native species,ballast water,DNA sequencing,molecular probe,BLACK-SEA,NARRAGANSETT BAY,JELLYFISH BLOOMS,PREDATION,ZOOPLANKTON,PATTERNS,LOBATE,WATER}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{163--169}},
  title        = {{Distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ai.2012.7.2.002}},
  volume       = {{7}},
  year         = {{2012}},
}

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