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Respiration as a indicator of embodied music cognition in collaborative vocal performance

Katty Kochman (UGent) , Matthias Demoucron (UGent) , Dirk Moelants (UGent) and Marc Leman (UGent)
(2012) COGNITIVE PROCESSING. 13(1). p.S44-S45
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Abstract
In collaborative music practice respiration may function not only as a biological mechanism supporting effective vocal technique, but also as an anticipatory signal that allows for perceptual matching and effective decision making between performers. Embodied music cognition provides the theoretical framework necessary to understand signification practices and behavioural resonances that occur in non-linguistic musical communication. Within the context of collaborative music making in vocal performance, respiration is a form of synchronization and embodied attuning in the space between participants. Respiration allows not only for coordination, but also for engagement of higher-level intentional processes, such as expressive affect and feeling. Therefore, an alteration of the timing of respiration was expected according to the phrase initiation of the singer. Singer-pianist pairs were asked to perform four pieces - first in an individual and then collaborative condition. 12 subjects (6 pianists, 6 singers) participated in the study. The pairs were based on musicians who had previously collaborated together and were balanced according to experience, specifically 3 pairs of musicians with more then 10 years experience and 3 pairs of musicians currently training. Respiration was monitored via Plux respiration sensors, consisting of a monolithic silicon pressure sensor encapsulated in an air membrane. The timing of respiration between pianists and singers was analyzed between groups to identify individual strategies. Experience and familiarity with the piece were important factors that impacted the effectiveness of communication between performers. Respiration functioned as a tool for mutual co-articulation and coordination of somatic information. At the beginning of each phrase, the timing of inhalations changed reflecting the significance collaborative intention between individual and collaborative conditions. The effects of expressivity, experience and musical familiarity were also examined. Case-by-case analysis of phrase initiation showed the influence of collaborative performance on the respiratory patterns of performers. This analysis should contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the communicative strategies that contribute to efficient performance practices between performers.
Keywords
singing, embodied music cognition, Respiration, voice

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Chicago
Kochman, Katty, Matthias Demoucron, Dirk Moelants, and Marc Leman. 2012. “Respiration as a Indicator of Embodied Music Cognition in Collaborative Vocal Performance.” In Cognitive Processing, 13:S44–S45.
APA
Kochman, K., Demoucron, M., Moelants, D., & Leman, M. (2012). Respiration as a indicator of embodied music cognition in collaborative vocal performance. COGNITIVE PROCESSING (Vol. 13, pp. S44–S45). Presented at the 5th International Conference on Spatial Cognition (ICSC - 2012).
Vancouver
1.
Kochman K, Demoucron M, Moelants D, Leman M. Respiration as a indicator of embodied music cognition in collaborative vocal performance. COGNITIVE PROCESSING. 2012. p. S44–S45.
MLA
Kochman, Katty, Matthias Demoucron, Dirk Moelants, et al. “Respiration as a Indicator of Embodied Music Cognition in Collaborative Vocal Performance.” Cognitive Processing. Vol. 13. 2012. S44–S45. Print.
@inproceedings{2983978,
  abstract     = {In collaborative music practice respiration may function not only as a biological mechanism supporting effective vocal technique, but also as an anticipatory signal that allows for perceptual matching and effective decision making between performers. Embodied music cognition provides the theoretical framework necessary to understand signification practices and behavioural resonances that occur in non-linguistic musical communication. Within the context of collaborative music making in vocal performance, respiration is a form of synchronization and embodied attuning in the space between participants. Respiration allows not only for coordination, but also for engagement of higher-level intentional processes, such as expressive affect and feeling. Therefore, an alteration of the timing of respiration was expected according to the phrase initiation of the singer.  Singer-pianist pairs were asked to perform four pieces - first in an individual and then collaborative condition. 12 subjects (6 pianists, 6 singers) participated in the study. The pairs were based on musicians who had previously collaborated together and were balanced according to experience, specifically 3 pairs of musicians with more then 10 years experience and 3 pairs of musicians currently training. Respiration was monitored via Plux respiration sensors, consisting of a monolithic silicon pressure sensor encapsulated in an air membrane. The timing of respiration between pianists and singers was analyzed between groups to identify individual strategies. Experience and familiarity with the piece were important factors that impacted the effectiveness of communication between performers. Respiration functioned as a tool for mutual co-articulation and coordination of somatic information. At the beginning of each phrase, the timing of inhalations changed reflecting the significance collaborative intention between individual and collaborative conditions. The effects of expressivity, experience and musical familiarity were also examined. Case-by-case analysis of phrase initiation showed the influence of collaborative performance on the respiratory patterns of performers. This analysis should contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the communicative strategies that contribute to efficient performance practices between performers.},
  author       = {Kochman, Katty and Demoucron, Matthias and Moelants, Dirk and Leman, Marc},
  booktitle    = {COGNITIVE PROCESSING},
  issn         = {1612-4782},
  keyword      = {singing,embodied music cognition,Respiration,voice},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Rome, Italy},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {S44--S45},
  title        = {Respiration as a indicator of embodied music cognition in collaborative vocal performance},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2012},
}

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