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Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European adolescents : the HELENA Study

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Abstract
Background: An adequate nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, E) and beta-carotene is essential especially during childhood and adolescence, because of their important roles in cell growth and development. Currently, there are no physiological reference values for blood concentration of these vitamins and beta-carotene in apparently healthy European adolescents. The aim of the current study was to obtain reliable and comparable data of antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene in a cross-sectional study, within HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence), which was conducted in a representative sample of adolescents from ten European cities. Material and Methods: From a subsample of 1,054 adolescents (males= 501) of the HELENA Cross Sectional Study with an age range of 12.5 to 17.49 years, fasting blood samples were taken and analyzed for vitamins A, E, C, and beta-carotene status. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution by age and sex is given. Results: Mean concentrations were the following: Retinol: 356.4 +/- 107.9 cm/mL; alpha-tocopherol: 9.9 +/- 2.1 mu g/mL; vitamin C: 10.3 +/- 3.3 mg/L; and beta-carotene: 245.6 +/- 169.6 cm/mL. Females showed higher a-tocopherol and vitamin C values compared with males and 17-year-old boys had higher retinol levels than the same-aged girls (p = 0.018). Retinol serum concentrations increased significantly according to age in both gender, but girls had also significantly increasing beta-carotene levels by age. Conclusions: For the first time, concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and pro-vitamin beta-carotene have been obtained in a representative sample of apparently healthy European adolescents. These data can contribute to the establishment of reference ranges in adolescents.
Keywords
RETINOL, REFERENCE VALUES, FRENCH POPULATION, SPANISH ADOLESCENTS, ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS, PENALIZED LIKELIHOOD, CHILDREN, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, Europe, HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE, NUTRITIONAL-STATUS, beta-carotene, adolescents, retinol, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol

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Citation

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Chicago
Breidenassel, Christina, Jara Valtuena, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Jasmin Benser, Andre Spinneker, Luis A Moreno, Stefaan De Henauw, et al. 2011. “Antioxidant Vitamin Status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 81 (4): 245–255.
APA
Breidenassel, Christina, Valtuena, J., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Benser, J., Spinneker, A., Moreno, L. A., De Henauw, S., et al. (2011). Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European adolescents : the HELENA Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR VITAMIN AND NUTRITION RESEARCH, 81(4), 245–255.
Vancouver
1.
Breidenassel C, Valtuena J, Gonzalez-Gross M, Benser J, Spinneker A, Moreno LA, et al. Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European adolescents : the HELENA Study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR VITAMIN AND NUTRITION RESEARCH. 2011;81(4):245–55.
MLA
Breidenassel, Christina, Jara Valtuena, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, et al. “Antioxidant Vitamin Status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR VITAMIN AND NUTRITION RESEARCH 81.4 (2011): 245–255. Print.
@article{2976843,
  abstract     = {Background: An adequate nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, E) and beta-carotene is essential especially during childhood and adolescence, because of their important roles in cell growth and development. Currently, there are no physiological reference values for blood concentration of these vitamins and beta-carotene in apparently healthy European adolescents. The aim of the current study was to obtain reliable and comparable data of antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene in a cross-sectional study, within HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence), which was conducted in a representative sample of adolescents from ten European cities. Material and Methods: From a subsample of 1,054 adolescents (males= 501) of the HELENA Cross Sectional Study with an age range of 12.5 to 17.49 years, fasting blood samples were taken and analyzed for vitamins A, E, C, and beta-carotene status. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution by age and sex is given. Results: Mean concentrations were the following: Retinol: 356.4 +/- 107.9 cm/mL; alpha-tocopherol: 9.9 +/- 2.1 mu g/mL; vitamin C: 10.3 +/- 3.3 mg/L; and beta-carotene: 245.6 +/- 169.6 cm/mL. Females showed higher a-tocopherol and vitamin C values compared with males and 17-year-old boys had higher retinol levels than the same-aged girls (p = 0.018). Retinol serum concentrations increased significantly according to age in both gender, but girls had also significantly increasing beta-carotene levels by age. Conclusions: For the first time, concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and pro-vitamin beta-carotene have been obtained in a representative sample of apparently healthy European adolescents. These data can contribute to the establishment of reference ranges in adolescents.},
  author       = {Breidenassel, Christina and Valtuena, Jara and Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela and Benser, Jasmin and Spinneker, Andre and Moreno, Luis A and De Henauw, Stefaan and Widhalm, Kurt and Molnar, Denes and Maiani, Guiseppe and Stehle, Peter},
  issn         = {0300-9831},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR VITAMIN AND NUTRITION RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {245--255},
  title        = {Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and Beta-Carotene) in European adolescents : the HELENA Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000070},
  volume       = {81},
  year         = {2011},
}

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