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Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program

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Abstract
We assessed exposure of applicators, health risk of DDT to the applicators and evaluated the applicability of existing pesticide exposure models for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Patch sampling for dermal and personal air sampler for inhalation exposure were used in monitoring 57 applicators on the exposure assessment to DDT. The exposure of the applicators was also estimated using three exposure models. The mean actual dermal exposure was 449 mg total DDT per applicator per one house treatment. The applicators were exposed to DDT much beyond the estimated AOEL (acceptable operator exposure level) of DDT. The exposure estimated with ConsExpo 5.0 b01 model is situated between the median and the 75th percentile of the experimental data. On the other hand, spraying model 1 and spraying model 10 overestimate the exposure. Thus, these three models cannot be directly used for the particular circumstances of IRS as a tool for risk assessment. In general, use of DDT in IRS as a control method for malaria mosquitoes holds a high health risk for the applicators. Strict implementation of spraying procedures stated in the IRS manual of World Health Organization (WHO) is necessary to reduce the exposure level and health risk of applicators to DDT.
Keywords
DDT, applicators, exposure assessment, health risk assessment, indoor residual spraying, PERCUTANEOUS-ABSORPTION, PASSIVE DOSIMETRY, DERMAL ABSORPTION, PESTICIDES, WORKERS, LAYER

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Chicago
Spanoghe, Pieter, Dejene A Tessema, and Walter Steurbaut. 2012. “Exposure and Health Risk Assessment of Applicators to DDT During Indoor Residual Spraying in Malaria Vector Control Program.” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 22 (6): 549–558.
APA
Spanoghe, P., Tessema, D. A., & Steurbaut, W. (2012). Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 22(6), 549–558.
Vancouver
1.
Spanoghe P, Tessema DA, Steurbaut W. Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2012;22(6):549–58.
MLA
Spanoghe, Pieter, Dejene A Tessema, and Walter Steurbaut. “Exposure and Health Risk Assessment of Applicators to DDT During Indoor Residual Spraying in Malaria Vector Control Program.” JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 22.6 (2012): 549–558. Print.
@article{2976141,
  abstract     = {We assessed exposure of applicators, health risk of DDT to the applicators and evaluated the applicability of existing pesticide exposure models for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Patch sampling for dermal and personal air sampler for inhalation exposure were used in monitoring 57 applicators on the exposure assessment to DDT. The exposure of the applicators was also estimated using three exposure models. The mean actual dermal exposure was 449 mg total DDT per applicator per one house treatment. The applicators were exposed to DDT much beyond the estimated AOEL (acceptable operator exposure level) of DDT. The exposure estimated with ConsExpo 5.0 b01 model is situated between the median and the 75th percentile of the experimental data. On the other hand, spraying model 1 and spraying model 10 overestimate the exposure. Thus, these three models cannot be directly used for the particular circumstances of IRS as a tool for risk assessment. In general, use of DDT in IRS as a control method for malaria mosquitoes holds a high health risk for the applicators. Strict implementation of spraying procedures stated in the IRS manual of World Health Organization (WHO) is necessary to reduce the exposure level and health risk of applicators to DDT.},
  author       = {Spanoghe, Pieter and Tessema, Dejene A and Steurbaut, Walter},
  issn         = {1559-0631},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {549--558},
  title        = {Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.45},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2012},
}

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