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The influence of dietary arachidonic acid on the immune response and performance of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at high stocking density

(2012) AQUACULTURE NUTRITION. 18(3). p.258-271
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Abstract
Stocking shrimp at high densities increases yield during culture, but growth is generally compromised and weakened immune response associated with poor water quality has also been reported. Therefore, we tested if supplying more arachidonic acid (ARA) in the diet, a precursor of eicosanoids such as prostaglandins E from the series II (PGE2) that enhance immune response can counteract the negative effect of stocking shrimp at high densities. The effect of physical crowding was separated from the effect of water quality, both a result of high density, by using tanks divided by a hard plastic net that allowed water flow between two density conditions. Crowding reduced weight gain by 8.3%, although the effect was more evident with deteriorated water quality from combined effects of high total ammonia and low dissolved oxygen levels (18.4%), but no effect on survival was found. A clear food imprinting of ARA levels in hemocytes was observed, but ARA did not clearly counteract the negative effects of high density on overall performance. However, ARA could minimize stress response of sampling and enhance some effectors of the immune system, such as clotting and respiratory burst. The increase in PGE2 metabolite in shrimp fed with the high-ARA diet was not consistent, and thus, the effects of ARA were not necessarily mediated by these eicosanoids.
Keywords
GROWTH, STRESS, VIBRIO-ALGINOLYTICUS, AMBIENT AMMONIA, ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS, GIANT TIGER PRAWN, UNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS, PENAEUS-MONODON FABRICIUS, OYSTER CRASSOSTREA-GIGAS, POSTLARVAE, shrimp, density, arachidonic acid, immune response, prostaglandins, polyunsaturated fatty acids

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Chicago
Aguilar, V, IS Racotta, E Goytortúa, Mathieu Wille, Patrick Sorgeloos, R Civera, and E Palacios. 2012. “The Influence of Dietary Arachidonic Acid on the Immune Response and Performance of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, at High Stocking Density.” Aquaculture Nutrition 18 (3): 258–271.
APA
Aguilar, V., Racotta, I., Goytortúa, E., Wille, M., Sorgeloos, P., Civera, R., & Palacios, E. (2012). The influence of dietary arachidonic acid on the immune response and performance of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at high stocking density. AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, 18(3), 258–271.
Vancouver
1.
Aguilar V, Racotta I, Goytortúa E, Wille M, Sorgeloos P, Civera R, et al. The influence of dietary arachidonic acid on the immune response and performance of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at high stocking density. AQUACULTURE NUTRITION. 2012;18(3):258–71.
MLA
Aguilar, V, IS Racotta, E Goytortúa, et al. “The Influence of Dietary Arachidonic Acid on the Immune Response and Performance of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, at High Stocking Density.” AQUACULTURE NUTRITION 18.3 (2012): 258–271. Print.
@article{2976079,
  abstract     = {Stocking shrimp at high densities increases yield during culture, but growth is generally compromised and weakened immune response associated with poor water quality has also been reported. Therefore, we tested if supplying more arachidonic acid (ARA) in the diet, a precursor of eicosanoids such as prostaglandins E from the series II (PGE2) that enhance immune response can counteract the negative effect of stocking shrimp at high densities. The effect of physical crowding was separated from the effect of water quality, both a result of high density, by using tanks divided by a hard plastic net that allowed water flow between two density conditions. Crowding reduced weight gain by 8.3\%, although the effect was more evident with deteriorated water quality from combined effects of high total ammonia and low dissolved oxygen levels (18.4\%), but no effect on survival was found. A clear food imprinting of ARA levels in hemocytes was observed, but ARA did not clearly counteract the negative effects of high density on overall performance. However, ARA could minimize stress response of sampling and enhance some effectors of the immune system, such as clotting and respiratory burst. The increase in PGE2 metabolite in shrimp fed with the high-ARA diet was not consistent, and thus, the effects of ARA were not necessarily mediated by these eicosanoids.},
  author       = {Aguilar, V and Racotta, IS and Goytort{\'u}a, E and Wille, Mathieu and Sorgeloos, Patrick and Civera, R and Palacios, E},
  issn         = {1353-5773},
  journal      = {AQUACULTURE NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {GROWTH,STRESS,VIBRIO-ALGINOLYTICUS,AMBIENT AMMONIA,ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS,GIANT TIGER PRAWN,UNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS,PENAEUS-MONODON FABRICIUS,OYSTER CRASSOSTREA-GIGAS,POSTLARVAE,shrimp,density,arachidonic acid,immune response,prostaglandins,polyunsaturated fatty acids},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {258--271},
  title        = {The influence of dietary arachidonic acid on the immune response and performance of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at high stocking density},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2011.00892.x},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2012},
}

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