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Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children

Inge Huybrechts (UGent) , Willem De Keyzer (UGent) , Yi Lin (UGent) , Stefanie Vandevijvere, Carine Vereecken (UGent) , Herman Van Oyen (UGent) , Katrien Tilleman, Mia Bellemans (UGent) , Mieke De Maeyer (UGent) , Gui De Backer (UGent) , et al.
(2012) PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION. 15(6). p.1039-1046
Author
Organization
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate dietary sources of Na and K intakes among Flemish pre-school children using multiple linear regression analyses. Design: Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to Na and K intakes of fifty-seven food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals. Setting: A random cluster sampling design at the level of schools, stratified by province and age, was used. Subjects: A representative sample of 696 Flemish pre-school children aged 2.5-6.5 years was recruited. Results: Mean Na intake was above and mean K intake was largely below the recommendation for children. Bread (22%) and soup (13%) were main contributors to Na intake followed by cold meat cuts and other meat products (12% and 11%, respectively). Sugared milk drinks, fried potatoes, milk and fruit juices were the main K sources (13%, 12%, 11% and 11%, respectively). Although Na and K intakes were positively correlated, several food categories showed Na:K intake ratio well above one (water, cheeses, soup, butter/margarine, fast foods and light beverages) whereas others presented a ratio well below one (oil & fat, fruits & juices, potatoes, vegetables and hot beverages). Conclusions: Flemish pre-school children had too high Na and too low K intakes. The finding that main dietary sources of Na and K are clearly different indicates the feasibility of simultaneously decreasing Na and increasing K intake among children.
Keywords
Dietary sources, Sodium, Potassium, Child, CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENTS, HYPERTENSION, POPULATION, SALT, ENERGY, DIETARY-INTAKE, BLOOD-PRESSURE, TRIALS, TRACKING

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MLA
Huybrechts, Inge, Willem De Keyzer, Yi Lin, et al. “Food Sources and Correlates of Sodium and Potassium Intakes in Flemish Pre-school Children.” PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 15.6 (2012): 1039–1046. Print.
APA
Huybrechts, I., De Keyzer, W., Lin, Y., Vandevijvere, S., Vereecken, C., Van Oyen, H., Tilleman, K., et al. (2012). Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children. PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION, 15(6), 1039–1046.
Chicago author-date
Huybrechts, Inge, Willem De Keyzer, Yi Lin, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Carine Vereecken, Herman Van Oyen, Katrien Tilleman, et al. 2012. “Food Sources and Correlates of Sodium and Potassium Intakes in Flemish Pre-school Children.” Public Health Nutrition 15 (6): 1039–1046.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Huybrechts, Inge, Willem De Keyzer, Yi Lin, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Carine Vereecken, Herman Van Oyen, Katrien Tilleman, Mia Bellemans, Mieke De Maeyer, Gui De Backer, and Stefaan De Henauw. 2012. “Food Sources and Correlates of Sodium and Potassium Intakes in Flemish Pre-school Children.” Public Health Nutrition 15 (6): 1039–1046.
Vancouver
1.
Huybrechts I, De Keyzer W, Lin Y, Vandevijvere S, Vereecken C, Van Oyen H, et al. Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children. PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION. 2012;15(6):1039–46.
IEEE
[1]
I. Huybrechts et al., “Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children,” PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1039–1046, 2012.
@article{2975683,
  abstract     = {Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate dietary sources of Na and K intakes among Flemish pre-school children using multiple linear regression analyses. 
Design: Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to Na and K intakes of fifty-seven food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals. 
Setting: A random cluster sampling design at the level of schools, stratified by province and age, was used. 
Subjects: A representative sample of 696 Flemish pre-school children aged 2.5-6.5 years was recruited. 
Results: Mean Na intake was above and mean K intake was largely below the recommendation for children. Bread (22%) and soup (13%) were main contributors to Na intake followed by cold meat cuts and other meat products (12% and 11%, respectively). Sugared milk drinks, fried potatoes, milk and fruit juices were the main K sources (13%, 12%, 11% and 11%, respectively). Although Na and K intakes were positively correlated, several food categories showed Na:K intake ratio well above one (water, cheeses, soup, butter/margarine, fast foods and light beverages) whereas others presented a ratio well below one (oil & fat, fruits & juices, potatoes, vegetables and hot beverages). 
Conclusions: Flemish pre-school children had too high Na and too low K intakes. The finding that main dietary sources of Na and K are clearly different indicates the feasibility of simultaneously decreasing Na and increasing K intake among children.},
  author       = {Huybrechts, Inge and De Keyzer, Willem and Lin, Yi and Vandevijvere, Stefanie and Vereecken, Carine and Van Oyen, Herman and Tilleman, Katrien and Bellemans, Mia and De Maeyer, Mieke and De Backer, Gui and De Henauw, Stefaan},
  issn         = {1368-9800},
  journal      = {PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION},
  keywords     = {Dietary sources,Sodium,Potassium,Child,CHILDHOOD,ADOLESCENTS,HYPERTENSION,POPULATION,SALT,ENERGY,DIETARY-INTAKE,BLOOD-PRESSURE,TRIALS,TRACKING},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1039--1046},
  title        = {Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011002497},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2012},
}

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