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Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron in Flemish preschoolers

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Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In the absence of biochemical data on iron status in preschoolers, data on the adequacy of iron intake may be used to assess the possible risk of iron deficiency in this population group. Therefore, this study aims to investigate iron intake and its food sources in Flemish preschoolers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 661 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old were recruited via a random cluster sampling design, using schools as primary sampling units. Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to iron intake (haem and non-haem) of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals. RESULTS: Mean total iron intake (s.d.) was 7.4 (+/-2.3) and 6.7 (+/-2.8) mg/day for boys and girls, respectively. In all 65% of the children <4 years old and 45% of those 4-6.5 years old presented adequate iron intakes. The food groups with the highest mean proportional contribution to total iron intake were bread, meat and meat products, breakfast cereals and sweet snacks (in that order). Children from small families whose mother had a low educational level had higher iron intakes. CONCLUSION: Iron intakes were similar for boys and girls and almost half of the Flemish preschoolers do not comply with the dietary iron recommendations.
Keywords
ADOLESCENTS, ENERGY, NUTRIENTS, child, iron, INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS, CHILDREN, FOOD, dietary sources

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Chicago
Huybrechts, Inge, Yi Lin, Willem De Keyzer, Christophe Matthys, L Harvey, A Meirhaeghe, J Dallongeville, B Sarria, Gui De Backer, and Stefaan De Henauw. 2012. “Intake and Dietary Sources of Haem and Non-haem Iron in Flemish Preschoolers.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66 (7): 806–812.
APA
Huybrechts, I., Lin, Y., De Keyzer, W., Matthys, C., Harvey, L., Meirhaeghe, A., Dallongeville, J., et al. (2012). Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron in Flemish preschoolers. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 66(7), 806–812.
Vancouver
1.
Huybrechts I, Lin Y, De Keyzer W, Matthys C, Harvey L, Meirhaeghe A, et al. Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron in Flemish preschoolers. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2012;66(7):806–12.
MLA
Huybrechts, Inge, Yi Lin, Willem De Keyzer, et al. “Intake and Dietary Sources of Haem and Non-haem Iron in Flemish Preschoolers.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 66.7 (2012): 806–812. Print.
@article{2975652,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In the absence of biochemical data on iron status in preschoolers, data on the adequacy of iron intake may be used to assess the possible risk of iron deficiency in this population group. Therefore, this study aims to investigate iron intake and its food sources in Flemish preschoolers. 
SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 661 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old were recruited via a random cluster sampling design, using schools as primary sampling units. Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to iron intake (haem and non-haem) of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals. 
RESULTS: Mean total iron intake (s.d.) was 7.4 (+/-2.3) and 6.7 (+/-2.8) mg/day for boys and girls, respectively. In all 65\% of the children {\textlangle}4 years old and 45\% of those 4-6.5 years old presented adequate iron intakes. The food groups with the highest mean proportional contribution to total iron intake were bread, meat and meat products, breakfast cereals and sweet snacks (in that order). Children from small families whose mother had a low educational level had higher iron intakes. 
CONCLUSION: Iron intakes were similar for boys and girls and almost half of the Flemish preschoolers do not comply with the dietary iron recommendations.},
  author       = {Huybrechts, Inge and Lin, Yi and De Keyzer, Willem and Matthys, Christophe and Harvey, L and Meirhaeghe, A and Dallongeville, J and Sarria, B and De Backer, Gui and De Henauw, Stefaan},
  issn         = {0954-3007},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {806--812},
  title        = {Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron in Flemish preschoolers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2012.16},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2012},
}

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