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Natural hypolignification is associated with extensive oligolignol accumulation in flax stems

(2012) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 158(4). p.1893-1915
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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
Flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems contain cells showing contrasting cell wall structure: lignified in inner stem xylem tissue and hypolignified in outer stem bast fibers. We hypothesized that stem hypolignification should be associated with extensive phenolic accumulation and used metabolomics and transcriptomics to characterize these two tissues. H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance clearly distinguished inner and outer stem tissues and identified different primary and secondary metabolites, including coniferin and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry aromatic profiling (lignomics) identified 81 phenolic compounds, of which 65 were identified, to our knowledge, for the first time in flax and 11 for the first time in higher plants. Both aglycone forms and glycosides of monolignols, lignin oligomers, and (neo)lignans were identified in both inner and outer stem tissues, with a preponderance of glycosides in the hypolignified outer stem, indicating the existence of a complex monolignol metabolism. The presence of coniferin-containing secondary metabolites suggested that coniferyl alcohol, in addition to being used in lignin and (neo)lignan formation, was also utilized in a third, partially uncharacterized metabolic pathway. Hypolignification of bast fibers in outer stem tissues was correlated with the low transcript abundance of monolignol biosynthetic genes, laccase genes, and certain peroxidase genes, suggesting that flax hypolignification is transcriptionally regulated. Transcripts of the key lignan genes Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase and Phenylcoumaran Benzylic Ether Reductase were also highly abundant in flax inner stem tissues. Expression profiling allowed the identification of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) and MYB transcription factors that are likely involved in regulating both monolignol production and polymerization as well as (neo) lignan production.
Keywords
LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS, LINUM-USITATISSIMUM SEEDS, CELL-WALL FORMATION, DOWN-REGULATION, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, PINORESINOL-LARICIRESINOL, WOOD FORMATION, TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, GENE-EXPRESSION, HYDROXYCINNAMOYL-COA

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Citation

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Chicago
Huis, Rudy, Kris Morreel, Ophélie Fliniaux, Anca Lucau-Danila, Stéphane Fénart, Sébastien Grec, Godfrey Neutelings, et al. 2012. “Natural Hypolignification Is Associated with Extensive Oligolignol Accumulation in Flax Stems.” Plant Physiology 158 (4): 1893–1915.
APA
Huis, R., Morreel, K., Fliniaux, O., Lucau-Danila, A., Fénart, S., Grec, S., Neutelings, G., et al. (2012). Natural hypolignification is associated with extensive oligolignol accumulation in flax stems. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 158(4), 1893–1915.
Vancouver
1.
Huis R, Morreel K, Fliniaux O, Lucau-Danila A, Fénart S, Grec S, et al. Natural hypolignification is associated with extensive oligolignol accumulation in flax stems. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2012;158(4):1893–915.
MLA
Huis, Rudy, Kris Morreel, Ophélie Fliniaux, et al. “Natural Hypolignification Is Associated with Extensive Oligolignol Accumulation in Flax Stems.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 158.4 (2012): 1893–1915. Print.
@article{2964914,
  abstract     = {Flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems contain cells showing contrasting cell wall structure: lignified in inner stem xylem tissue and hypolignified in outer stem bast fibers. We hypothesized that stem hypolignification should be associated with extensive phenolic accumulation and used metabolomics and transcriptomics to characterize these two tissues. H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance clearly distinguished inner and outer stem tissues and identified different primary and secondary metabolites, including coniferin and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry aromatic profiling (lignomics) identified 81 phenolic compounds, of which 65 were identified, to our knowledge, for the first time in flax and 11 for the first time in higher plants. Both aglycone forms and glycosides of monolignols, lignin oligomers, and (neo)lignans were identified in both inner and outer stem tissues, with a preponderance of glycosides in the hypolignified outer stem, indicating the existence of a complex monolignol metabolism. The presence of coniferin-containing secondary metabolites suggested that coniferyl alcohol, in addition to being used in lignin and (neo)lignan formation, was also utilized in a third, partially uncharacterized metabolic pathway. Hypolignification of bast fibers in outer stem tissues was correlated with the low transcript abundance of monolignol biosynthetic genes, laccase genes, and certain peroxidase genes, suggesting that flax hypolignification is transcriptionally regulated. Transcripts of the key lignan genes Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase and Phenylcoumaran Benzylic Ether Reductase were also highly abundant in flax inner stem tissues. Expression profiling allowed the identification of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) and MYB transcription factors that are likely involved in regulating both monolignol production and polymerization as well as (neo) lignan production.},
  author       = {Huis, Rudy and Morreel, Kris and Fliniaux, Oph{\'e}lie and Lucau-Danila, Anca and F{\'e}nart, St{\'e}phane and Grec, S{\'e}bastien and Neutelings, Godfrey and Chabbert, Brigitte and Mesnard, Fran\c{c}ois and Boerjan, Wout and Hawkins, Simon},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS,LINUM-USITATISSIMUM SEEDS,CELL-WALL FORMATION,DOWN-REGULATION,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,PINORESINOL-LARICIRESINOL,WOOD FORMATION,TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR,GENE-EXPRESSION,HYDROXYCINNAMOYL-COA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1893--1915},
  title        = {Natural hypolignification is associated with extensive oligolignol accumulation in flax stems},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.111.192328},
  volume       = {158},
  year         = {2012},
}

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