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Digital representation of historical globes : methods to make 3D and pseudo-3D models of sixteenth century Mercator globes

Cornelis Stal (UGent) , Alain De Wulf (UGent) , Karen De Coene (UGent) , Philippe De Maeyer (UGent) , Timothy Nuttens (UGent) and Thérèse Ongena (UGent)
(2012) CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL. 49(2). p.107-117
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Abstract
In this paper, the construction of digital representations of a terrestrial and celestial globe will be discussed. Virtual digital (3D) models play an important role in recent research and publications on cultural heritage. The globes discussed in this paper were made by Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) in 1541 and 1551. Four techniques for the digital representation are discussed and analysed, all using high-resolution photographs of the globes. These photographs were taken under studio conditions in order to get equal lighting and to avoid unwanted light spots. These lighting conditions are important, since the globes have a highly reflective varnish covering. Processing these images using structure from motion, georeferencing of separate scenes and the combination of the photographs with terrestrial laser scanning data results in true 3D representations of the globes. Besides, pseudo-3D models of these globes were generated using dynamic imaging, which is an extensively used technique for visualisations over the Internet. The four techniques and the consequent results are compared on geometric and radiometric quality, with a special focus on their usefulness for distribution and visualisation during an exhibition in honour of the five hundredth birthday of Gerardus Mercator.
Keywords
comparison, virtual reality, 3D modelling, globes, Mercator

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Chicago
Stal, Cornelis, Alain De Wulf, Karen De Coene, Philippe De Maeyer, Timothy Nuttens, and Thérèse Ongena. 2012. “Digital Representation of Historical Globes : Methods to Make 3D and pseudo-3D Models of Sixteenth Century Mercator Globes.” Cartographic Journal 49 (2): 107–117.
APA
Stal, C., De Wulf, A., De Coene, K., De Maeyer, P., Nuttens, T., & Ongena, T. (2012). Digital representation of historical globes : methods to make 3D and pseudo-3D models of sixteenth century Mercator globes. CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL, 49(2), 107–117.
Vancouver
1.
Stal C, De Wulf A, De Coene K, De Maeyer P, Nuttens T, Ongena T. Digital representation of historical globes : methods to make 3D and pseudo-3D models of sixteenth century Mercator globes. CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL. 2012;49(2):107–17.
MLA
Stal, Cornelis, Alain De Wulf, Karen De Coene, et al. “Digital Representation of Historical Globes : Methods to Make 3D and pseudo-3D Models of Sixteenth Century Mercator Globes.” CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL 49.2 (2012): 107–117. Print.
@article{2961696,
  abstract     = {In this paper, the construction of digital representations of a terrestrial and celestial globe will be discussed. Virtual digital (3D) models play an important role in recent research and publications on cultural heritage. The globes discussed in this paper were made by Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) in 1541 and 1551. Four techniques for the digital representation are discussed and analysed, all using high-resolution photographs of the globes. These photographs were taken under studio conditions in order to get equal lighting and to avoid unwanted light spots. These lighting conditions are important, since the globes have a highly reflective varnish covering. Processing these images using structure from motion, georeferencing of separate scenes and the combination of the photographs with terrestrial laser scanning data results in true 3D representations of the globes. Besides, pseudo-3D models of these globes were generated using dynamic imaging, which is an extensively used technique for visualisations over the Internet. The four techniques and the consequent results are compared on geometric and radiometric quality, with a special focus on their usefulness for distribution and visualisation during an exhibition in honour of the five hundredth birthday of Gerardus Mercator.},
  author       = {Stal, Cornelis and De Wulf, Alain and De Coene, Karen and De Maeyer, Philippe and Nuttens, Timothy and Ongena, Thérèse},
  issn         = {0008-7041},
  journal      = {CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {comparison,virtual reality,3D modelling,globes,Mercator},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {107--117},
  title        = {Digital representation of historical globes : methods to make 3D and pseudo-3D models of sixteenth century Mercator globes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1743277412Y.0000000002},
  volume       = {49},
  year         = {2012},
}

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