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Adaptive immune responses in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis

(2011) ALLERGY. 66(11). p.1449-1456
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Abstract
Background: The etiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is currently an area of intense debate. Recently, biofilms have been proposed as a potential environmental trigger in this disease. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus biofilms appear to be a predictor of severe disease recalcitrant to current treatment paradigms. However, direct causal links between biofilms and host immune activation are currently lacking. This study aimed to document both the adaptive immune responses that characterize S. aureus biofilm-associated CRS and the relative contributions of staphylococcal superantigens and S. aureus biofilms in the inflammatory make-up of this disease. Methods: A total of 53 disease subjects and 15 controls were recruited. Sinonasal mucosa was collected for the determination of S. aureus and Haemophilus influenzae biofilms and presence of total and superantigen-specific IgE and for the measurement of cytokines that characterize the T-helper pathways. Results: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and superantigens are significantly associated in CRS patients, suggesting the biofilm may be a nidus for superantigen-eluting bacteria. The presence of S. aureus biofilms is associated with eosinophilic inflammation, across the spectrum of CRS, on the back of a T-helper(2) skewing of the host's adaptive immune response (elevated Eosinophilic Cationic Protein and IL-5). This can be distinguished from the superantigenic effect resulting in the induction of IgE. Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence of a link between S. aureus biofilms and skewing of the T-cell response toward the T-helper2 pathway that is independent of superantigen activities. Further research is required to confirm the cause-effect relationship of this association.
Keywords
Staphylococcus aureus, cytokine, biofilm, chronic rhinosinusitis, superantigen, BACTERIAL BIOFILMS, NASAL POLYPOSIS, ENTEROTOXINS, INFECTIONS, MECHANISMS, OUTCOMES, DISEASE, PROTEIN, TISSUE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Foreman, A, G Holtappels, AJ Psaltis, et al. “Adaptive Immune Responses in Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm-associated Chronic Rhinosinusitis.” ALLERGY 66.11 (2011): 1449–1456. Print.
APA
Foreman, A., Holtappels, G., Psaltis, A., Jervis-Bardy, J., Field, J., Wormald, P., & Bachert, C. (2011). Adaptive immune responses in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis. ALLERGY, 66(11), 1449–1456.
Chicago author-date
Foreman, A, G Holtappels, AJ Psaltis, J Jervis-Bardy, J Field, PJ Wormald, and Claus Bachert. 2011. “Adaptive Immune Responses in Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm-associated Chronic Rhinosinusitis.” Allergy 66 (11): 1449–1456.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Foreman, A, G Holtappels, AJ Psaltis, J Jervis-Bardy, J Field, PJ Wormald, and Claus Bachert. 2011. “Adaptive Immune Responses in Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm-associated Chronic Rhinosinusitis.” Allergy 66 (11): 1449–1456.
Vancouver
1.
Foreman A, Holtappels G, Psaltis A, Jervis-Bardy J, Field J, Wormald P, et al. Adaptive immune responses in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis. ALLERGY. 2011;66(11):1449–56.
IEEE
[1]
A. Foreman et al., “Adaptive immune responses in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis,” ALLERGY, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1449–1456, 2011.
@article{2959304,
  abstract     = {Background: The etiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is currently an area of intense debate. Recently, biofilms have been proposed as a potential environmental trigger in this disease. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus biofilms appear to be a predictor of severe disease recalcitrant to current treatment paradigms. However, direct causal links between biofilms and host immune activation are currently lacking. This study aimed to document both the adaptive immune responses that characterize S. aureus biofilm-associated CRS and the relative contributions of staphylococcal superantigens and S. aureus biofilms in the inflammatory make-up of this disease. 
Methods: A total of 53 disease subjects and 15 controls were recruited. Sinonasal mucosa was collected for the determination of S. aureus and Haemophilus influenzae biofilms and presence of total and superantigen-specific IgE and for the measurement of cytokines that characterize the T-helper pathways. 
Results: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and superantigens are significantly associated in CRS patients, suggesting the biofilm may be a nidus for superantigen-eluting bacteria. The presence of S. aureus biofilms is associated with eosinophilic inflammation, across the spectrum of CRS, on the back of a T-helper(2) skewing of the host's adaptive immune response (elevated Eosinophilic Cationic Protein and IL-5). This can be distinguished from the superantigenic effect resulting in the induction of IgE. 
Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence of a link between S. aureus biofilms and skewing of the T-cell response toward the T-helper2 pathway that is independent of superantigen activities. Further research is required to confirm the cause-effect relationship of this association.},
  author       = {Foreman, A and Holtappels, G and Psaltis, AJ and Jervis-Bardy, J and Field, J and Wormald, PJ and Bachert, Claus},
  issn         = {0105-4538},
  journal      = {ALLERGY},
  keywords     = {Staphylococcus aureus,cytokine,biofilm,chronic rhinosinusitis,superantigen,BACTERIAL BIOFILMS,NASAL POLYPOSIS,ENTEROTOXINS,INFECTIONS,MECHANISMS,OUTCOMES,DISEASE,PROTEIN,TISSUE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1449--1456},
  title        = {Adaptive immune responses in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02678.x},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2011},
}

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