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In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity and toxicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene

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Abstract
The estrogenicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene (DCB) was evaluated with a yeast estrogen screen (YES) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin (VTG) assays. With the YES, p-DCB and m-DCB were found to be estrogenic in a concentration-responsive manner. The relative potency measured with the YES (relative to 17beta-estradiol) was 2.2 X 10(-7) for p-DCB and 1.04 X 10(-8) for m-DCB. Following acute toxicity tests with the zebrafish, plasma VTG production-was measured to examine the in vivo estrogenic activity of the three compounds after a 14-d exposure. Adult zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of o-, m- and p-DCB, ranging from 0.1 to 32 mg/L; ethynylestradiol ([EE2]; 5 ng/L, 10 ng/L, 50 ng/L, and 100 ng/L) Was used as a positive control. After exposure, blood samples were taken and protein electrophoresis was performed to determine the relative VTG content. Gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and condition factors (CF) were also calculated. Elevated VTG levels and decreased female GSIs were found in fish exposed to greater than or equal to 5 ng EE2/L and in fish exposed to greater than or equal to 10 mg p-DCB/L. Low GSIs coincided with high levels of VTG in the blood of female zebrafish. This relation was not only found in fish exposed to EE2 but also in controls and fish exposed to DCB. Therefore, a direct or indirect effect of VTG on the GSI is suggested rather than a direct toxic effect of the tested compounds on the gonads.
Keywords
vitellogenin, xenoestrogens, zebrafish, gonadosomatic index, MINNOWS PIMEPHALES-PROMELAS, ZEBRAFISH DANIO-RERIO, LETHAL BODY BURDEN, FATHEAD MINNOWS, REPRODUCTIVE IMPAIRMENT, VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION, DISRUPTING CHEMICALS, ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, EXPOSURE, FISH, endocrine disruption

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Chicago
Versonnen, Bram J, Katrien Arijs, Tim Verslycke, Wouter Lema, and Colin Janssen. 2003. “In Vitro and in Vivo Estrogenicity and Toxicity of O-, M-, and P-dichlorobenzene.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22 (2): 329–335.
APA
Versonnen, B. J., Arijs, K., Verslycke, T., Lema, W., & Janssen, C. (2003). In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity and toxicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, 22(2), 329–335.
Vancouver
1.
Versonnen BJ, Arijs K, Verslycke T, Lema W, Janssen C. In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity and toxicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. 2003;22(2):329–35.
MLA
Versonnen, Bram J, Katrien Arijs, Tim Verslycke, et al. “In Vitro and in Vivo Estrogenicity and Toxicity of O-, M-, and P-dichlorobenzene.” ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 22.2 (2003): 329–335. Print.
@article{295146,
  abstract     = {The estrogenicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene (DCB) was evaluated with a yeast estrogen screen (YES) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin (VTG) assays. With the YES, p-DCB and m-DCB were found to be estrogenic in a concentration-responsive manner. The relative potency measured with the YES (relative to 17beta-estradiol) was 2.2 X 10(-7) for p-DCB and 1.04 X 10(-8) for m-DCB. Following acute toxicity tests with the zebrafish, plasma VTG production-was measured to examine the in vivo estrogenic activity of the three compounds after a 14-d exposure. Adult zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of o-, m- and p-DCB, ranging from 0.1 to 32 mg/L; ethynylestradiol ([EE2]; 5 ng/L, 10 ng/L, 50 ng/L, and 100 ng/L) Was used as a positive control. After exposure, blood samples were taken and protein electrophoresis was performed to determine the relative VTG content. Gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and condition factors (CF) were also calculated. Elevated VTG levels and decreased female GSIs were found in fish exposed to greater than or equal to 5 ng EE2/L and in fish exposed to greater than or equal to 10 mg p-DCB/L. Low GSIs coincided with high levels of VTG in the blood of female zebrafish. This relation was not only found in fish exposed to EE2 but also in controls and fish exposed to DCB. Therefore, a direct or indirect effect of VTG on the GSI is suggested rather than a direct toxic effect of the tested compounds on the gonads.},
  author       = {Versonnen, Bram J and Arijs, Katrien and Verslycke, Tim and Lema, Wouter and Janssen, Colin},
  issn         = {0730-7268},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY},
  keyword      = {vitellogenin,xenoestrogens,zebrafish,gonadosomatic index,MINNOWS PIMEPHALES-PROMELAS,ZEBRAFISH DANIO-RERIO,LETHAL BODY BURDEN,FATHEAD MINNOWS,REPRODUCTIVE IMPAIRMENT,VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION,DISRUPTING CHEMICALS,ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION,EXPOSURE,FISH,endocrine disruption},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {329--335},
  title        = {In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity and toxicity of o-, m-, and p-dichlorobenzene},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220213},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2003},
}

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