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HALOGAS: HI observations and modeling of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244

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Abstract
We present 21 cm observations and models of the H I kinematics and distribution of NGC 4244, a nearby edge-on Scd galaxy observed as part of the Westerbork HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS) survey. Our models give insight into the Hi kinematics and distribution with an emphasis on the potential existence of extraplanar gas as well as a negative gradient in rotational velocity with height above the plane of the disk (a lag). Our models yield strong evidence against a significantly extended halo and instead favor a warp component along the line of sight as an explanation for most of the observed thickening of the disk. Based on these models, we detect a lag of -9(-2)(+3) km s(-1) kpc(-1) in the approaching half and -9 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) in the receding half. This lag decreases in magnitude to -5 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) and -4 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) near a radius of 10 kpc in the approaching and receding halves, respectively. Additionally, we detect several distinct morphological and kinematic features including a shell that is probably driven by star formation within the disk.
Keywords
galaxies: individual (NGC 4244), galaxies: halos, galaxies: ISM, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure, DIFFUSE IONIZED-GAS, EXTRA-PLANAR GAS, MULTIPHASE GASEOUS HALOS, NEUTRAL HYDROGEN GAS, HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS, STAR-FORMATION, DISK GALAXIES, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM, ROTATION CURVE, KINEMATICS

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Citation

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MLA
Zschaechner, Laura K, Richard J Rand, George H Heald, et al. “HALOGAS: HI Observations and Modeling of the Nearby Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 4244.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 740.1 (2011): n. pag. Print.
APA
Zschaechner, L. K., Rand, R. J., Heald, G. H., Gentile, G., & Kamphuis, P. (2011). HALOGAS: HI observations and modeling of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 740(1).
Chicago author-date
Zschaechner, Laura K, Richard J Rand, George H Heald, Gianfranco Gentile, and Peter Kamphuis. 2011. “HALOGAS: HI Observations and Modeling of the Nearby Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 4244.” Astrophysical Journal 740 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zschaechner, Laura K, Richard J Rand, George H Heald, Gianfranco Gentile, and Peter Kamphuis. 2011. “HALOGAS: HI Observations and Modeling of the Nearby Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 4244.” Astrophysical Journal 740 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Zschaechner LK, Rand RJ, Heald GH, Gentile G, Kamphuis P. HALOGAS: HI observations and modeling of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2011;740(1).
IEEE
[1]
L. K. Zschaechner, R. J. Rand, G. H. Heald, G. Gentile, and P. Kamphuis, “HALOGAS: HI observations and modeling of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 740, no. 1, 2011.
@article{2918545,
  abstract     = {We present 21 cm observations and models of the H I kinematics and distribution of NGC 4244, a nearby edge-on Scd galaxy observed as part of the Westerbork HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS) survey. Our models give insight into the Hi kinematics and distribution with an emphasis on the potential existence of extraplanar gas as well as a negative gradient in rotational velocity with height above the plane of the disk (a lag). Our models yield strong evidence against a significantly extended halo and instead favor a warp component along the line of sight as an explanation for most of the observed thickening of the disk. Based on these models, we detect a lag of -9(-2)(+3) km s(-1) kpc(-1) in the approaching half and -9 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) in the receding half. This lag decreases in magnitude to -5 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) and -4 +/- 2 km s(-1) kpc(-1) near a radius of 10 kpc in the approaching and receding halves, respectively. Additionally, we detect several distinct morphological and kinematic features including a shell that is probably driven by star formation within the disk.},
  articleno    = {35},
  author       = {Zschaechner, Laura K and Rand, Richard J and Heald, George H and Gentile, Gianfranco and Kamphuis, Peter},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {galaxies: individual (NGC 4244),galaxies: halos,galaxies: ISM,galaxies: kinematics and dynamics,galaxies: spiral,galaxies: structure,DIFFUSE IONIZED-GAS,EXTRA-PLANAR GAS,MULTIPHASE GASEOUS HALOS,NEUTRAL HYDROGEN GAS,HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS,STAR-FORMATION,DISK GALAXIES,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM,ROTATION CURVE,KINEMATICS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {HALOGAS: HI observations and modeling of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4244},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/740/1/35},
  volume       = {740},
  year         = {2011},
}

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