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Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey

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Abstract
Background: Reports on the state of knowledge about medicines and driving showed an increased concern about the role that the use of medicines might play in car crashes. Much of patient knowledge regarding medicines comes from communications with healthcare professionals. This study, part of the DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines) project, was carried out in four European countries and attempts to define predictors for knowledge of patients who use driving-impairing medicines. The influence of socio-demographic variables on patient knowledge was investigated as well as the influence of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes on patients' reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines. Methods: Pharmacists handed out questionnaires to patients who met the inclusion criteria: 1) prevalent user of benzodiazepines, antidepressants or first generation antihistamines for systemic use; 2) age between 18 and 75 years old and 3) actual driver of a motorised vehicle. Factors affecting knowledge and reported behaviour towards driving-impairing medicines were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results: A total of 633 questionnaires (out of 3.607 that were distributed to patients) were analysed. Patient knowledge regarding driving under the influence of medicines is better in younger and higher educated patients. Information provided to or accessed by patients does not influence knowledge. Patients who experienced side effects and who have a negative attitude towards driving under the influence of impairing medicines are more prone to change their driving frequency behaviour than those who use their motorised vehicles on a daily basis or those who use anti-allergic medicines. Conclusions: Changes in driving behaviour can be predicted by negative attitudes towards driving under the influence of medicines but not by patients' knowledge regarding driving under the influence of medicines. Future research should not only focus on information campaigns for patients but also for healthcare providers as this might contribute to improve communications with patients regarding the risks of driving under the influence of medicines.
Keywords
TRAFFIC SAFETY, PLANNED BEHAVIOR, PRIMARY-CARE, DRUGS, MEDICATIONS, RISK, PRESCRIPTION, INFORMATION, ACCIDENTS, DRIVERS

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MLA
Monteiro, Susana P, Liset van Dijk, Alain Verstraete, et al. “Predictors for Patient Knowledge and Reported Behaviour Regarding Driving Under the Influence of Medicines: a Multi-country Survey.” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 12 (2012): n. pag. Print.
APA
Monteiro, S. P., van Dijk, L., Verstraete, A., Álvarez, F. J., Heissing, M., & de Gier, J. J. (2012). Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 12.
Chicago author-date
Monteiro, Susana P, Liset van Dijk, Alain Verstraete, F Javier Álvarez, Michael Heissing, and Johan J de Gier. 2012. “Predictors for Patient Knowledge and Reported Behaviour Regarding Driving Under the Influence of Medicines: a Multi-country Survey.” Bmc Public Health 12.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Monteiro, Susana P, Liset van Dijk, Alain Verstraete, F Javier Álvarez, Michael Heissing, and Johan J de Gier. 2012. “Predictors for Patient Knowledge and Reported Behaviour Regarding Driving Under the Influence of Medicines: a Multi-country Survey.” Bmc Public Health 12.
Vancouver
1.
Monteiro SP, van Dijk L, Verstraete A, Álvarez FJ, Heissing M, de Gier JJ. Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH. 2012;12.
IEEE
[1]
S. P. Monteiro, L. van Dijk, A. Verstraete, F. J. Álvarez, M. Heissing, and J. J. de Gier, “Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey,” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 12, 2012.
@article{2916431,
  abstract     = {Background: Reports on the state of knowledge about medicines and driving showed an increased concern about the role that the use of medicines might play in car crashes. Much of patient knowledge regarding medicines comes from communications with healthcare professionals. This study, part of the DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines) project, was carried out in four European countries and attempts to define predictors for knowledge of patients who use driving-impairing medicines. The influence of socio-demographic variables on patient knowledge was investigated as well as the influence of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes on patients' reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines. 
Methods: Pharmacists handed out questionnaires to patients who met the inclusion criteria: 1) prevalent user of benzodiazepines, antidepressants or first generation antihistamines for systemic use; 2) age between 18 and 75 years old and 3) actual driver of a motorised vehicle. Factors affecting knowledge and reported behaviour towards driving-impairing medicines were analysed by means of multiple linear regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, respectively. 
Results: A total of 633 questionnaires (out of 3.607 that were distributed to patients) were analysed. Patient knowledge regarding driving under the influence of medicines is better in younger and higher educated patients. Information provided to or accessed by patients does not influence knowledge. Patients who experienced side effects and who have a negative attitude towards driving under the influence of impairing medicines are more prone to change their driving frequency behaviour than those who use their motorised vehicles on a daily basis or those who use anti-allergic medicines. 
Conclusions: Changes in driving behaviour can be predicted by negative attitudes towards driving under the influence of medicines but not by patients' knowledge regarding driving under the influence of medicines. Future research should not only focus on information campaigns for patients but also for healthcare providers as this might contribute to improve communications with patients regarding the risks of driving under the influence of medicines.},
  articleno    = {59},
  author       = {Monteiro, Susana P and van Dijk, Liset and Verstraete, Alain and Álvarez, F Javier and Heissing, Michael and de Gier, Johan J},
  issn         = {1471-2458},
  journal      = {BMC PUBLIC HEALTH},
  keywords     = {TRAFFIC SAFETY,PLANNED BEHAVIOR,PRIMARY-CARE,DRUGS,MEDICATIONS,RISK,PRESCRIPTION,INFORMATION,ACCIDENTS,DRIVERS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Predictors for patient knowledge and reported behaviour regarding driving under the influence of medicines: a multi-country survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-59},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2012},
}

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