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Nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrates, I: the effect of the inorganic components

(2012) ECS Transactions. 41(35). p.75-82
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Abstract
The effect of the inorganic components, namely copper sulfate (CuSO4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrate is reported in the absence and the presence of a suppressor molecule, polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the absence of PEG it was found that the island density, Np was the highest when CuSO4 and HCl concentrations were low while H2SO4 concentration was high. The effect of each component remained similar when all components were mixed together. In the presence of PEG, the effect of CuSO4 and H2SO4 remained similar. However, for the HCl, an optimal concentration was found where Np reached a maximum value. The study illustrates the importance of an optimal bath composition toward faster coalescence of the Cu islands into a continuous Cu film for direct plating applications.
Keywords
POLYETHYLENE-GLYCOL, Direct copper plating, ORGANIC ADDITIVES, CHLORIDE-IONS, ACID-SOLUTION, ELECTRODEPOSITION, DEPOSITION, BEHAVIOR, BATH, CU, INTERCONNECT

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Chicago
Nagar, Magi Margalit, Philippe M Vereecken, Katrien Strubbe, and Alexandar Radisic. 2012. “Nucleation and Growth of Copper on Ru-based Substrates, I: The Effect of the Inorganic Components.” In ECS Transactions, 41:75–82. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS).
APA
Nagar, M. M., Vereecken, P. M., Strubbe, K., & Radisic, A. (2012). Nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrates, I: the effect of the inorganic components. ECS Transactions (Vol. 41, pp. 75–82). Presented at the Symposium on Semiconductors, Metal Oxides, and Composites: Metallization and electrodeposition of thin films and nanostructures 2, held at the 220th Electrochemical Society Meeting (ECS Fall 2011), Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS).
Vancouver
1.
Nagar MM, Vereecken PM, Strubbe K, Radisic A. Nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrates, I: the effect of the inorganic components. ECS Transactions. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS); 2012. p. 75–82.
MLA
Nagar, Magi Margalit, Philippe M Vereecken, Katrien Strubbe, et al. “Nucleation and Growth of Copper on Ru-based Substrates, I: The Effect of the Inorganic Components.” ECS Transactions. Vol. 41. Pennington, NJ, USA: Electrochemical Society (ECS), 2012. 75–82. Print.
@inproceedings{2915357,
  abstract     = {The effect of the inorganic components, namely copper sulfate (CuSO4), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrate is reported in the absence and the presence of a suppressor molecule, polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the absence of PEG it was found that the island density, Np was the highest when CuSO4 and HCl concentrations were low while H2SO4 concentration was high. The effect of each component remained similar when all components were mixed together. In the presence of PEG, the effect of CuSO4 and H2SO4 remained similar. However, for the HCl, an optimal concentration was found where Np reached a maximum value. The study illustrates the importance of an optimal bath composition toward faster coalescence of the Cu islands into a continuous Cu film for direct plating applications.},
  author       = {Nagar, Magi Margalit and  Vereecken, Philippe M and Strubbe, Katrien and Radisic, Alexandar},
  booktitle    = {ECS Transactions},
  isbn         = {9781607683346},
  issn         = {1938-5862},
  keywords     = {POLYETHYLENE-GLYCOL,Direct copper plating,ORGANIC ADDITIVES,CHLORIDE-IONS,ACID-SOLUTION,ELECTRODEPOSITION,DEPOSITION,BEHAVIOR,BATH,CU,INTERCONNECT},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Boston, MA, USA},
  number       = {35},
  pages        = {75--82},
  publisher    = {Electrochemical Society (ECS)},
  title        = {Nucleation and growth of copper on Ru-based substrates, I: the effect of the inorganic components},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.3699382},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2012},
}

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