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The influence of an audience on performers: a comparison between rehearsal and concert using audio, video and movement data

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Abstract
For many people, live concerts occupy an important position in their experience of music. The interaction between audience and performers creates a special tension, which also influences the performing musicians. This paper presents a method to study how the presence of an audience influences performers. To study this influence, a concert with a singer and a viola da gamba player was recorded using audio, video and acceleration sensors (invisibly) attached to wrists and back of the performers. These data were compared to the general rehearsal, recorded in identical settings. This enabled a scientifically valid comparison, without challenging ecological validity. General rehearsal and concert performances were relatively similar, which shows that performers are able to reproduce their interpretation. However, comparison between conditions revealed some interesting differences. Tempo analysis showed that the pieces in a slower, more flexible tempo were performed slower in concert, while the faster, more dance-like tempi were performed slightly faster. Gesture analysis suggested a tendency for the singer to use more open, communicative postures during the concert, to change posture more often and take more time in the transitions. The movement analysis showed an overall increase in intensity of the hand movements of the singer. In summary, we may conclude that the different methods of analysis demonstrated an intensification of the performance while interacting with the audience.
Keywords
EXPERIENCES, MUSIC PERFORMANCE, IPEMexpressive

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Chicago
Moelants, Dirk, Michiel Demey, Maarten Grachten, Chia-Fen Wu, and Marc Leman. 2012. “The Influence of an Audience on Performers: a Comparison Between Rehearsal and Concert Using Audio, Video and Movement Data.” Journal of New Music Research 41 (1): 67–78.
APA
Moelants, D., Demey, M., Grachten, M., Wu, C.-F., & Leman, M. (2012). The influence of an audience on performers: a comparison between rehearsal and concert using audio, video and movement data. JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH, 41(1), 67–78.
Vancouver
1.
Moelants D, Demey M, Grachten M, Wu C-F, Leman M. The influence of an audience on performers: a comparison between rehearsal and concert using audio, video and movement data. JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH. 2012;41(1):67–78.
MLA
Moelants, Dirk, Michiel Demey, Maarten Grachten, et al. “The Influence of an Audience on Performers: a Comparison Between Rehearsal and Concert Using Audio, Video and Movement Data.” JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH 41.1 (2012): 67–78. Print.
@article{2914197,
  abstract     = {For many people, live concerts occupy an important position in their experience of music. The interaction between audience and performers creates a special tension, which also influences the performing musicians. This paper presents a method to study how the presence of an audience influences performers. To study this influence, a concert with a singer and a viola da gamba player was recorded using audio, video and acceleration sensors (invisibly) attached to wrists and back of the performers. These data were compared to the general rehearsal, recorded in identical settings. This enabled a scientifically valid comparison, without challenging ecological validity. General rehearsal and concert performances were relatively similar, which shows that performers are able to reproduce their interpretation. However, comparison between conditions revealed some interesting differences. Tempo analysis showed that the pieces in a slower, more flexible tempo were performed slower in concert, while the faster, more dance-like tempi were performed slightly faster. Gesture analysis suggested a tendency for the singer to use more open, communicative postures during the concert, to change posture more often and take more time in the transitions. The movement analysis showed an overall increase in intensity of the hand movements of the singer. In summary, we may conclude that the different methods of analysis demonstrated an intensification of the performance while interacting with the audience.},
  author       = {Moelants, Dirk and Demey, Michiel and Grachten, Maarten and Wu, Chia-Fen and Leman, Marc},
  issn         = {0929-8215},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {EXPERIENCES,MUSIC PERFORMANCE,IPEMexpressive},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {67--78},
  title        = {The influence of an audience on performers: a comparison between rehearsal and concert using audio, video and movement data},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09298215.2011.642392},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2012},
}

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