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Epistaxis as the primary clinical sign in canine leishmaniosis: three cases

Author
Organization
Abstract
Many differential diagnoses can be made for a dog presented with epistaxis. Canine leishmaniosis may cause epistaxis, but according to the literature it is only observed in 6 - 37% of the cases. Three patients presented with epistaxis suffered from a Leishmania infection. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of epistaxis in leishmaniosis are multiple, however, hypergammaglobulinemia with vasculitis is the most important one.
Keywords
VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS, DOGS, PROPHYLAXIS, NETHERLANDS, HEMOSTASIS, DIAGNOSIS, THERAPY, GERMANY

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Chicago
Hoybergs, Yves, Sylvie Daminet, Jan Declercq, Valérie Bavegems, and Leen Van Brantegem. 2003. “Epistaxis as the Primary Clinical Sign in Canine Leishmaniosis: Three Cases.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 72 (4): 264–273.
APA
Hoybergs, Yves, Daminet, S., Declercq, J., Bavegems, V., & Van Brantegem, L. (2003). Epistaxis as the primary clinical sign in canine leishmaniosis: three cases. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 72(4), 264–273.
Vancouver
1.
Hoybergs Y, Daminet S, Declercq J, Bavegems V, Van Brantegem L. Epistaxis as the primary clinical sign in canine leishmaniosis: three cases. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2003;72(4):264–73.
MLA
Hoybergs, Yves, Sylvie Daminet, Jan Declercq, et al. “Epistaxis as the Primary Clinical Sign in Canine Leishmaniosis: Three Cases.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 72.4 (2003): 264–273. Print.
@article{289546,
  abstract     = {Many differential diagnoses can be made for a dog presented with epistaxis. Canine leishmaniosis may cause epistaxis, but according to the literature it is only observed in 6 - 37\% of the cases. Three patients presented with epistaxis suffered from a Leishmania infection. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of epistaxis in leishmaniosis are multiple, however, hypergammaglobulinemia with vasculitis is the most important one.},
  author       = {Hoybergs, Yves and Daminet, Sylvie and Declercq, Jan and Bavegems, Val{\'e}rie and Van Brantegem, Leen},
  issn         = {0303-9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  keyword      = {VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS,DOGS,PROPHYLAXIS,NETHERLANDS,HEMOSTASIS,DIAGNOSIS,THERAPY,GERMANY},
  language     = {dut},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {264--273},
  title        = {Epistaxis as the primary clinical sign in canine leishmaniosis: three cases},
  volume       = {72},
  year         = {2003},
}

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