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Quantifying acromiohumeral distance in overhead athletes with glenohumeral internal rotation loss and the influence of a stretching program

Annelies Maenhout UGent, Valérie Van Eessel UGent, Lieselot Van Dyck UGent, Aagje Vanraes UGent and Ann Cools UGent (2012) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE. 40(9). p.2105-2112
abstract
Background: Loss of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) on the dominant side is well documented in athletes performing overhead sports activity. This altered motion pattern has been shown to change glenohumeral and scapular kinematics. This could compromise the subacromial space and explain the association between glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and subacromial impingement. Purpose: First, to quantify acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and compare between the dominant and nondominant side in overhead athletes with GIRD of more than 15 degrees. Second, to investigate the effect of a sleeper stretch program on ROM and AHD. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Range of motion was measured with a digital inclinometer and AHD was measured with ultrasound in 62 overhead athletes with GIRD (>15 degrees) at baseline. Differences between sides were analyzed. Athletes were randomly allocated to the stretch (n = 30) or control group (n = 32). The stretch group performed a 6-week sleeper stretch program on the dominant side. Change of range of motion and AHD were measured and analyzed in both groups after 6 weeks. Results: The dominant side showed a significant internal rotation deficit (-24.7 degrees +/- 6.3 degrees) and horizontal adduction deficit (-11.8 degrees +/- 7.4 degrees) and the dominant side AHD was significantly smaller with the arm at neutral (-0.4 +/- 0.6 mm) and at 45 degrees (-0.5 6 0.8 mm) and 60 degrees (-0.6 +/- 0.7 mm) of active abduction compared with the nondominant side. After stretching, significant increase of internal rotation (113.5 degrees +/- 0.8 degrees), horizontal adduction (110.6 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees) ROM and AHD (+0.5 to +0.6mm) was observed at the dominant side of the stretch group compared with prestretching measurements. No significant change of AHD was seen in the nondominant side of the stretch group and in both sides of the control group. Conclusion: The AHD, a 2-dimensional measure for subacromial space, was found to be smaller on the dominant side in athletes with GIRD and was found to increase after a 6-week sleeper stretch program.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
MOTION, STIFF SHOULDERS, THROWING SHOULDER, subacromial space, shoulder impingement syndrome, overhead athletes, decreased internal rotation, PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL PITCHERS, POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS, IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME, TENNIS PLAYERS, SUBACROMIAL SPACE, RANGE, RELIABILITY
journal title
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE
Am. J. Sports Med.
volume
40
issue
9
pages
2105 - 2112
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000308230600029
JCR category
ORTHOPEDICS
JCR impact factor
4.439 (2012)
JCR rank
1/63 (2012)
JCR quartile
1 (2012)
ISSN
0363-5465
DOI
10.1177/0363546512454530
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2700626
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2700626
date created
2012-06-18 14:13:24
date last changed
2015-06-17 10:07:07
@article{2700626,
  abstract     = {Background: Loss of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) on the dominant side is well documented in athletes performing overhead sports activity. This altered motion pattern has been shown to change glenohumeral and scapular kinematics. This could compromise the subacromial space and explain the association between glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and subacromial impingement. 
Purpose: First, to quantify acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and compare between the dominant and nondominant side in overhead athletes with GIRD of more than 15 degrees. Second, to investigate the effect of a sleeper stretch program on ROM and AHD. 
Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. 
Methods: Range of motion was measured with a digital inclinometer and AHD was measured with ultrasound in 62 overhead athletes with GIRD ({\textrangle}15 degrees) at baseline. Differences between sides were analyzed. Athletes were randomly allocated to the stretch (n = 30) or control group (n = 32). The stretch group performed a 6-week sleeper stretch program on the dominant side. Change of range of motion and AHD were measured and analyzed in both groups after 6 weeks. 
Results: The dominant side showed a significant internal rotation deficit (-24.7 degrees +/- 6.3 degrees) and horizontal adduction deficit (-11.8 degrees +/- 7.4 degrees) and the dominant side AHD was significantly smaller with the arm at neutral (-0.4 +/- 0.6 mm) and at 45 degrees (-0.5 6 0.8 mm) and 60 degrees (-0.6 +/- 0.7 mm) of active abduction compared with the nondominant side. After stretching, significant increase of internal rotation (113.5 degrees +/- 0.8 degrees), horizontal adduction (110.6 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees) ROM and AHD (+0.5 to +0.6mm) was observed at the dominant side of the stretch group compared with prestretching measurements. No significant change of AHD was seen in the nondominant side of the stretch group and in both sides of the control group. 
Conclusion: The AHD, a 2-dimensional measure for subacromial space, was found to be smaller on the dominant side in athletes with GIRD and was found to increase after a 6-week sleeper stretch program.},
  author       = {Maenhout, Annelies and Van Eessel, Val{\'e}rie and Van Dyck, Lieselot and Vanraes, Aagje and Cools, Ann},
  issn         = {0363-5465},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE},
  keyword      = {MOTION,STIFF SHOULDERS,THROWING SHOULDER,subacromial space,shoulder impingement syndrome,overhead athletes,decreased internal rotation,PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL PITCHERS,POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS,IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME,TENNIS PLAYERS,SUBACROMIAL SPACE,RANGE,RELIABILITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {2105--2112},
  title        = {Quantifying acromiohumeral distance in overhead athletes with glenohumeral internal rotation loss and the influence of a stretching program},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546512454530},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
Maenhout, Annelies, Valérie Van Eessel, Lieselot Van Dyck, Aagje Vanraes, and Ann Cools. 2012. “Quantifying Acromiohumeral Distance in Overhead Athletes with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Loss and the Influence of a Stretching Program.” American Journal of Sports Medicine 40 (9): 2105–2112.
APA
Maenhout, A., Van Eessel, V., Van Dyck, L., Vanraes, A., & Cools, A. (2012). Quantifying acromiohumeral distance in overhead athletes with glenohumeral internal rotation loss and the influence of a stretching program. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 40(9), 2105–2112.
Vancouver
1.
Maenhout A, Van Eessel V, Van Dyck L, Vanraes A, Cools A. Quantifying acromiohumeral distance in overhead athletes with glenohumeral internal rotation loss and the influence of a stretching program. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE. 2012;40(9):2105–12.
MLA
Maenhout, Annelies, Valérie Van Eessel, Lieselot Van Dyck, et al. “Quantifying Acromiohumeral Distance in Overhead Athletes with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Loss and the Influence of a Stretching Program.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE 40.9 (2012): 2105–2112. Print.