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Level of education and the risk of malignant-melanoma

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Organization
Abstract
Background: The risk for the development of malignant melanoma has been reported to be higher in persons with more formal education than in individuals with less. Objective: To study whether those with more formal education are indeed at more risk for malignant melanoma than those with less formal education. Methods: This case-control study explores the relation between education and melanoma risk by analyzing data collected by the American Cancer Society. A total of 1.2 million people were surveyed for a history of cancer and followed up for 6 years for the development of any cancer. In total, 2780 white persons had a history of malignant melanoma or developed malignant melanoma during the study period. The controls were age-, sex-, and geographically matched white persons selected from the remaining people enrolled. Results: Both men and women were shown to have a statistically significant increase in the relative risk for malignant melanoma with increasing education level (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). This relation was more striking in men when the relative risk with 95% confidence interval was calculated by sex for each education level. Conclusion: Americans with more formal education are at greater risk for malignant melanoma than those with less education.
Keywords
WESTERN CANADA MELANOMA, SKIN, SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS, OUTDOOR WORK, CUTANEOUS MELANOMA, SUNBURN, SWEDEN, SUN EXPOSURE, INDOOR

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MLA
Lee, PY, MK Silverman, DS Rigel, et al. “Level of Education and the Risk of Malignant-melanoma.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY 26.1 (1992): 59–63. Print.
APA
Lee, PY, Silverman, M., Rigel, D., Vossaert, K., Kopf, A., Bart, R., Garfinkel, L., et al. (1992). Level of education and the risk of malignant-melanoma. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY, 26(1), 59–63.
Chicago author-date
Lee, PY, MK Silverman, DS Rigel, Katrien Vossaert, AW Kopf, RS Bart, L Garfinkel, and MJ Levenstein. 1992. “Level of Education and the Risk of Malignant-melanoma.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 26 (1): 59–63.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lee, PY, MK Silverman, DS Rigel, Katrien Vossaert, AW Kopf, RS Bart, L Garfinkel, and MJ Levenstein. 1992. “Level of Education and the Risk of Malignant-melanoma.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 26 (1): 59–63.
Vancouver
1.
Lee P, Silverman M, Rigel D, Vossaert K, Kopf A, Bart R, et al. Level of education and the risk of malignant-melanoma. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY. 1992;26(1):59–63.
IEEE
[1]
P. Lee et al., “Level of education and the risk of malignant-melanoma,” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 1992.
@article{225229,
  abstract     = {{Background: The risk for the development of malignant melanoma has been reported to be higher in persons with more formal education than in individuals with less. 
Objective: To study whether those with more formal education are indeed at more risk for malignant melanoma than those with less formal education. Methods: This case-control study explores the relation between education and melanoma risk by analyzing data collected by the American Cancer Society. A total of 1.2 million people were surveyed for a history of cancer and followed up for 6 years for the development of any cancer. In total, 2780 white persons had a history of malignant melanoma or developed malignant melanoma during the study period. The controls were age-, sex-, and geographically matched white persons selected from the remaining people enrolled. Results: Both men and women were shown to have a statistically significant increase in the relative risk for malignant melanoma with increasing education level (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). This relation was more striking in men when the relative risk with 95% confidence interval was calculated by sex for each education level. Conclusion: Americans with more formal education are at greater risk for malignant melanoma than those with less education.}},
  author       = {{Lee, PY and Silverman, MK and Rigel, DS and Vossaert, Katrien and Kopf, AW and Bart, RS and Garfinkel, L and Levenstein, MJ}},
  issn         = {{0190-9622}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{WESTERN CANADA MELANOMA,SKIN,SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS,OUTDOOR WORK,CUTANEOUS MELANOMA,SUNBURN,SWEDEN,SUN EXPOSURE,INDOOR}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{59--63}},
  title        = {{Level of education and the risk of malignant-melanoma}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(92)70007-3}},
  volume       = {{26}},
  year         = {{1992}},
}

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