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The utility of pallor detecting anemia in under five years old children

(2000) ETHIOPIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 38(2). p.77-84
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Abstract
The diagnosis and management of anemia, which affects a significant proportion of young children in developing countries, largely depends on the clinical assessment for pallor. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the utility of pallor in detecting anemia. Children aged 2 to 60 months who visited the pediatric outpatient department of Jimma Hospital over 3 months period were assessed for the presence and degree of pallor in 4 anatomic sites (conjunctivae, tongue and buccal mucosa, nailbeds, palm) by trained nurses. Hemoglobin was then determined using the HemoCue method. Individuals involved in clinical examination did nor have access to the laboratory results before documenting their findings. The mean hemoglobin in the 574 children examined was 11.03 gm/dl, and about 46% had anemia. Children younger than 2 years were found to have a higher prevalence of anemia as compared to older children (p < 0.001). Palmar pallor, with a sensitivity of 58%, had the highest sensitivity to detect moderate anemia as compared to other anatomic sites. The presence of either palmer or conjuctival pallor increased the sensitivity to 73%;. The inter-observer agreement was higher for conjunctival pallor (kappa value = 0.81). The findings of the study suggest that pallor of a single anatomic site does not have adequate sensitivity to detect moderate anemia. We recommend further studies to look at the performance of severe pallor in correctly identifying severe anemia. Furthermore, the magnitude and causes of anemia need to be studied in a community setting.
Keywords
DIAGNOSE ANEMIA, CLINICAL SIGNS

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Chicago
Getaneh, Tesfaye, Tsinuel Girma, Tefera Belachew Lema, and Sileshi Teklemariam. 2000. “The Utility of Pallor Detecting Anemia in Under Five Years Old Children.” Ethiopian Medical Journal 38 (2): 77–84.
APA
Getaneh, T., Girma, T., Lema, T. B., & Teklemariam, S. (2000). The utility of pallor detecting anemia in under five years old children. ETHIOPIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 38(2), 77–84.
Vancouver
1.
Getaneh T, Girma T, Lema TB, Teklemariam S. The utility of pallor detecting anemia in under five years old children. ETHIOPIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2000;38(2):77–84.
MLA
Getaneh, Tesfaye, Tsinuel Girma, Tefera Belachew Lema, et al. “The Utility of Pallor Detecting Anemia in Under Five Years Old Children.” ETHIOPIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 38.2 (2000): 77–84. Print.
@article{2154445,
  abstract     = {The diagnosis and management of anemia, which affects a significant proportion of young children in developing countries, largely depends on the clinical assessment for pallor. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the utility of pallor in detecting anemia. Children aged 2 to 60 months who visited the pediatric outpatient department of Jimma Hospital over 3 months period were assessed for the presence and degree of pallor in 4 anatomic sites (conjunctivae, tongue and buccal mucosa, nailbeds, palm) by trained nurses. Hemoglobin was then determined using the HemoCue method. Individuals involved in clinical examination did nor have access to the laboratory results before documenting their findings. The mean hemoglobin in the 574 children examined was 11.03 gm/dl, and about 46\% had anemia. Children younger than 2 years were found to have a higher prevalence of anemia as compared to older children (p {\textlangle} 0.001). Palmar pallor, with a sensitivity of 58\%, had the highest sensitivity to detect moderate anemia as compared to other anatomic sites. The presence of either palmer or conjuctival pallor increased the sensitivity to 73\%;. The inter-observer agreement was higher for conjunctival pallor (kappa value = 0.81). The findings of the study suggest that pallor of a single anatomic site does not have adequate sensitivity to detect moderate anemia. We recommend further studies to look at the performance of severe pallor in correctly identifying severe anemia. Furthermore, the magnitude and causes of anemia need to be studied in a community setting.},
  author       = {Getaneh, Tesfaye and Girma, Tsinuel and Lema, Tefera Belachew and Teklemariam, Sileshi},
  issn         = {0014-1755},
  journal      = {ETHIOPIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {DIAGNOSE ANEMIA,CLINICAL SIGNS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {77--84},
  title        = {The utility of pallor detecting anemia in under five years old children},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2000},
}

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