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Water infiltration through openings in a vertical plane under static and dynamic pressure conditions

Michael A Lacasse, Nathan Van Den Bossche UGent and Travis Moore (2012) Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings. p.1-20
abstract
Moisture is the cause of many building deterioration problems, and rain is the prevalent source of moisture to building envelopes. Little information has to date been published on the mechanisms of water infiltration through openings in facades that also includes quantitative information to help demonstrate infiltration phenomena. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern water entry through openings present on vertical surfaces such as cladding will lead to improvement in watertightness performance of building components, provide enhanced knowledge of boundary conditions needed to complete hygrothermal simulations, and render a more scientific approach to the design watertightness test protocols. In this paper, a quantification of the driving forces is offered and qualitative analyses of interacting phenomena is presented that help characterize water ingress through openings in facades. Experimental research was done on two types of openings in a vertical polycarbonate plate similar in configuration to deficiencies on exterior cladding: round holes (1 mm, 4 mm and 8 mm diameter), and three slits (2 mm wide, under different angles). These deficiencies made in the plate had dimensions calculated to cover a range of capillary pressures and these were subjected to a simulated wind driven rain by means of pressure differences and water spray. Pressure differences of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Pa were applied, in combination with typical water spray rates used in test protocols (2.0 L/min.-m² and 3.4 L/min.-m²). The driving forces for water ingress are gravity, pressure differences, kinetic energy of film flow, capillary action and the surface tension of the meniscus. The capillary pressure at a specific temperature is mainly determined by the dimensions of the deficiencies and the contact angle of water on the substrate. The results of the experiments clearly indicated that the capillary pressure introduced a threshold for water ingress: water entry rates were predominantly defined by the geometry of the deficiencies in relation to the contact angle. Furthermore, the surface tension of the meniscus on the interior side of the front plate defines a pressure threshold that strongly affects the way water may infiltrate through openings; and it offers interesting insights in the effect of static and dynamic boundary conditions on infiltration rates.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
conference
publication status
published
subject
keyword
Infiltration, water management, building envelope, Watertightness
in
Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings
editor
Mark Bomberg and David Yarbrough
pages
1 - 20
publisher
National Institute Of Building Science
place of publication
Atlanta, GA, USA
conference name
Building Enclosure Science & Technology (BEST3 - 2012)
conference location
Atlanta, GA, USA
conference start
2012-04-02
conference end
2012-04-04
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
C1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2153203
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2153203
date created
2012-06-14 11:34:48
date last changed
2012-06-15 14:27:46
@inproceedings{2153203,
  abstract     = {Moisture is the cause of many building deterioration problems, and rain is the prevalent source of moisture to building envelopes. Little information has to date been published on the mechanisms of water infiltration through openings in facades that also includes quantitative information to help demonstrate infiltration phenomena. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern water entry through openings present on vertical surfaces such as cladding will lead to improvement in watertightness performance of building components, provide enhanced knowledge of boundary conditions needed to complete hygrothermal simulations, and render a more scientific approach to the design watertightness test protocols. In this paper, a quantification of the driving forces is offered and qualitative analyses of interacting phenomena is presented that help characterize water ingress through openings in facades. Experimental research was done on two types of openings in a vertical polycarbonate plate similar in configuration to deficiencies on exterior cladding: round holes (1 mm, 4 mm and 8 mm diameter), and three slits (2 mm wide, under different angles). These deficiencies made in the plate had dimensions calculated to cover a range of capillary pressures and these were subjected to a simulated wind driven rain by means of pressure differences and water spray. Pressure differences of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Pa were applied, in combination with typical water spray rates used in test protocols (2.0 L/min.-m{\texttwosuperior} and 3.4 L/min.-m{\texttwosuperior}). The driving forces for water ingress are gravity, pressure differences, kinetic energy of film flow, capillary action and the surface tension of the meniscus. The capillary pressure at a specific temperature is mainly determined by the dimensions of the deficiencies and the contact angle of water on the substrate. The results of the experiments clearly indicated that the capillary pressure introduced a threshold for water ingress: water entry rates were predominantly defined by the geometry of the deficiencies in relation to the contact angle. Furthermore, the surface tension of the meniscus on the interior side of the front plate defines a pressure threshold that strongly affects the way water may infiltrate through openings; and it offers interesting insights in the effect of static and dynamic boundary conditions on infiltration rates.},
  author       = {Lacasse, Michael A and Van Den Bossche, Nathan and Moore, Travis},
  booktitle    = {Building Enclosure Science \& Technology, Proceedings},
  editor       = {Bomberg, Mark and Yarbrough, David },
  keyword      = {Infiltration,water management,building envelope,Watertightness},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
  pages        = {1--20},
  publisher    = {National Institute Of Building Science},
  title        = {Water infiltration through openings in a vertical plane under static and dynamic pressure conditions},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
Lacasse, Michael A, Nathan Van Den Bossche, and Travis Moore. 2012. “Water Infiltration Through Openings in a Vertical Plane Under Static and Dynamic Pressure Conditions.” In Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings, ed. Mark Bomberg and David Yarbrough, 1–20. Atlanta, GA, USA: National Institute Of Building Science.
APA
Lacasse, M. A., Van Den Bossche, N., & Moore, T. (2012). Water infiltration through openings in a vertical plane under static and dynamic pressure conditions. In M. Bomberg & D. Yarbrough (Eds.), Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings (pp. 1–20). Presented at the Building Enclosure Science & Technology (BEST3 - 2012), Atlanta, GA, USA: National Institute Of Building Science.
Vancouver
1.
Lacasse MA, Van Den Bossche N, Moore T. Water infiltration through openings in a vertical plane under static and dynamic pressure conditions. In: Bomberg M, Yarbrough D, editors. Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings. Atlanta, GA, USA: National Institute Of Building Science; 2012. p. 1–20.
MLA
Lacasse, Michael A, Nathan Van Den Bossche, and Travis Moore. “Water Infiltration Through Openings in a Vertical Plane Under Static and Dynamic Pressure Conditions.” Building Enclosure Science & Technology, Proceedings. Ed. Mark Bomberg & David Yarbrough. Atlanta, GA, USA: National Institute Of Building Science, 2012. 1–20. Print.