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A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae)

Harry T Horner, Stefan Wanke and Marie-Stéphanie Samain UGent (2012) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 99(6). p.983-997
abstract
Premise of the study: This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Methods: Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Key results: Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Conclusions: Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
crystal movement, calcium oxalate crystals, crystal sand, druses, leaf crystal macropatterns, Peperomia, Piper, Piperaceae, raphides, styloids, CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS, DRUSE CRYSTALS, GENUS PIPER, LEAVES, PLANTS, IDIOBLASTS, ROSACEAE, CHLOROPHYTA, ENVIRONMENT, PRUNOIDEAE
journal title
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Am. J. Bot.
volume
99
issue
6
pages
983 - 997
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000305431300013
JCR category
PLANT SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
2.586 (2012)
JCR rank
46/193 (2012)
JCR quartile
1 (2012)
ISSN
0002-9122
DOI
10.3732/ajb.1200007
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2134705
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2134705
date created
2012-06-06 13:59:12
date last changed
2013-07-01 00:30:44
@article{2134705,
  abstract     = {Premise of the study: This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. 
Methods: Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. 
Key results: Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. 
Conclusions: Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.},
  author       = {Horner, Harry T and Wanke, Stefan and Samain, Marie-St{\'e}phanie},
  issn         = {0002-9122},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY},
  keyword      = {crystal movement,calcium oxalate crystals,crystal sand,druses,leaf crystal macropatterns,Peperomia,Piper,Piperaceae,raphides,styloids,CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS,DRUSE CRYSTALS,GENUS PIPER,LEAVES,PLANTS,IDIOBLASTS,ROSACEAE,CHLOROPHYTA,ENVIRONMENT,PRUNOIDEAE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {983--997},
  title        = {A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1200007},
  volume       = {99},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
Horner, Harry T, Stefan Wanke, and Marie-Stéphanie Samain. 2012. “A Comparison of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns in the Two Sister Genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).” American Journal of Botany 99 (6): 983–997.
APA
Horner, H. T., Wanke, S., & Samain, M.-S. (2012). A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, 99(6), 983–997.
Vancouver
1.
Horner HT, Wanke S, Samain M-S. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 2012;99(6):983–97.
MLA
Horner, Harry T, Stefan Wanke, and Marie-Stéphanie Samain. “A Comparison of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns in the Two Sister Genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 99.6 (2012): 983–997. Print.