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Effect of T-2 toxin and a yeast-extract feed additive on the oral bioavailability of chlortetracycline in pigs

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Abstract
Yeast-extracts derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as feed additive to improve animal health by promoting intestinal flora and by stimulating the immune system (Patterson, 2005). The impact of such feed additives on intestinal absorption of antibiotics has however not been described yet. T-2 toxin is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin, that can be present as feed contaminant and for which it is known it disturbs the intestinal integrity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of orally administered chlortetracycline in pigs after intake of 100 µg/kg T-2 toxin contaminated feed whether or not supplemented with a commercially available yeast-extract feed additive. Twenty-four 9-week-old pigs (Landrace) were randomized into a control group (n = 6) and three experimental groups (each n = 6). After an acclimatization period of one week, the groups were given respectively blank feed (control group), blank feed supplemented with the additive (Alphamune®, Pfizer, Belgium), feed experimentally contaminated with 111 µg T-2/kg feed and T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive. Two hours after the start of intake of the respective feeds, the animals were given a single oral intragastric bolus of chlortetracycline at 20 mg/kg BW (bolus 1) (Aurofac®, Alpharma, Belgium). Blood samples were taken at 30’, 1h, 1.30h, 2h, 3h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h and 24h post administration. Next, after 21 days of intake of the experimental feeds, the animals were given a second oral bolus of chlortetracycline (20 mg/kg BW) (bolus 2). Blood samples were collected as described for bolus 1. Plasma concentrations of chlortetracycline were determined using an in-house validated HPLC-UV method. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) were determined by means of the WinNonlin®, Version 6.2.0 (Pharsight Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA) software program. After euthanizing the animals, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken to determine villus length and crypt depth. Also the effect on the mucous layer was studied using a RT-PCR method for determination of mucin 1 and 2. Significant increased plasma concentrations of chlortetracycline compared to the control group were seen after intake of T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive (bolus 1) and after intake of both T-2 contaminated and T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive (bolus 2). More results will be presented at the congress.

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MLA
Goossens, Joline, Frank Pasmans, Virginie Vandenbroucke, et al. “Effect of T-2 Toxin and a Yeast-extract Feed Additive on the Oral Bioavailability of Chlortetracycline in Pigs.” Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts. 2012. Print.
APA
Goossens, Joline, Pasmans, F., Vandenbroucke, V., Verbrugghe, E., Devreese, M., Osselaere, A., De Baere, S., et al. (2012). Effect of T-2 toxin and a yeast-extract feed additive on the oral bioavailability of chlortetracycline in pigs. Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts. Presented at the 34th Mycotoxin Workshop.
Chicago author-date
Goossens, Joline, Frank Pasmans, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Elin Verbrugghe, Mathias Devreese, Ann Osselaere, Siegrid De Baere, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick De Backer, and Siska Croubels. 2012. “Effect of T-2 Toxin and a Yeast-extract Feed Additive on the Oral Bioavailability of Chlortetracycline in Pigs.” In Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Goossens, Joline, Frank Pasmans, Virginie Vandenbroucke, Elin Verbrugghe, Mathias Devreese, Ann Osselaere, Siegrid De Baere, Freddy Haesebrouck, Patrick De Backer, and Siska Croubels. 2012. “Effect of T-2 Toxin and a Yeast-extract Feed Additive on the Oral Bioavailability of Chlortetracycline in Pigs.” In Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts.
Vancouver
1.
Goossens J, Pasmans F, Vandenbroucke V, Verbrugghe E, Devreese M, Osselaere A, et al. Effect of T-2 toxin and a yeast-extract feed additive on the oral bioavailability of chlortetracycline in pigs. Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts. 2012.
IEEE
[1]
J. Goossens et al., “Effect of T-2 toxin and a yeast-extract feed additive on the oral bioavailability of chlortetracycline in pigs,” in Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts, Braunschweig, Germany, 2012.
@inproceedings{2127976,
  abstract     = {Yeast-extracts derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as feed additive to improve animal health by promoting intestinal flora and by stimulating the immune system (Patterson, 2005). The impact of such feed additives on intestinal absorption of antibiotics has however not been described yet. T-2 toxin is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin, that can be present as feed contaminant and for which it is known it disturbs the intestinal integrity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of orally administered chlortetracycline in pigs after intake of 100 µg/kg T-2 toxin contaminated feed whether or not supplemented with a commercially available yeast-extract feed additive. Twenty-four 9-week-old pigs (Landrace) were randomized into a control group (n = 6) and three experimental groups (each n = 6). After an acclimatization period of one week, the groups were given respectively blank feed (control group), blank feed supplemented with the additive (Alphamune®, Pfizer, Belgium), feed experimentally contaminated with 111 µg T-2/kg feed and T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive. Two hours after the start of intake of the respective feeds, the animals were given a single oral intragastric bolus of chlortetracycline at 20 mg/kg BW (bolus 1) (Aurofac®, Alpharma, Belgium). Blood samples were taken at 30’, 1h, 1.30h, 2h, 3h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h and 24h post administration. Next, after 21 days of intake of the experimental feeds, the animals were given a second oral bolus of chlortetracycline (20 mg/kg BW) (bolus 2). Blood samples were collected as described for bolus 1. Plasma concentrations of chlortetracycline were determined using an in-house validated HPLC-UV method. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) were determined by means of the WinNonlin®, Version 6.2.0 (Pharsight Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA) software program. After euthanizing the animals, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken to determine villus length and crypt depth. Also the effect on the mucous layer was studied using a RT-PCR method for determination of mucin 1 and 2. Significant increased plasma concentrations of chlortetracycline compared to the control group were seen after intake of T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive (bolus 1) and after intake of both T-2 contaminated and T-2 contaminated feed supplemented with the additive (bolus 2). More results will be presented at the congress.},
  author       = {Goossens, Joline and Pasmans, Frank and Vandenbroucke, Virginie and Verbrugghe, Elin and Devreese, Mathias and Osselaere, Ann and De Baere, Siegrid and Haesebrouck, Freddy and De Backer, Patrick and Croubels, Siska},
  booktitle    = {Mycotoxin Workshop, 34th, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Braunschweig, Germany},
  title        = {Effect of T-2 toxin and a yeast-extract feed additive on the oral bioavailability of chlortetracycline in pigs},
  year         = {2012},
}