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Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure

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Abstract
Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.
Keywords
IN-VIVO, TOXICITY, MUD SNAIL, INDUCED IMPOSEX, NUCELLA-LAPILLUS, ILYANASSA-OBSOLETA, ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, DAPHNIA-MAGNA, biomarker, endocrine disruption, tributyltin, testosterone metabolism, neomysis integer, BIOTRANSFORMATION, MARINE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Verslycke, Tim, Sofie Poelmans, Katia De Wasch, Jordy Vercauteren, Christophe Devos, Luc Moens, Patrick Sandra, Hubert De Brabander, and Colin Janssen. 2003. “Testosterone Metabolism in the Estuarine Mysid Neomysis Integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) Following Tributyltin Exposure.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22 (9): 2030–2036.
APA
Verslycke, T., Poelmans, S., De Wasch, K., Vercauteren, J., Devos, C., Moens, L., Sandra, P., et al. (2003). Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, 22(9), 2030–2036.
Vancouver
1.
Verslycke T, Poelmans S, De Wasch K, Vercauteren J, Devos C, Moens L, et al. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY. 2003;22(9):2030–6.
MLA
Verslycke, Tim, Sofie Poelmans, Katia De Wasch, et al. “Testosterone Metabolism in the Estuarine Mysid Neomysis Integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) Following Tributyltin Exposure.” ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 22.9 (2003): 2030–2036. Print.
@article{212718,
  abstract     = {Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.},
  author       = {Verslycke, Tim and Poelmans, Sofie and De Wasch, Katia and Vercauteren, Jordy and Devos, Christophe and Moens, Luc and Sandra, Patrick and De Brabander, Hubert and Janssen, Colin},
  issn         = {0730-7268},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY},
  keyword      = {IN-VIVO,TOXICITY,MUD SNAIL,INDUCED IMPOSEX,NUCELLA-LAPILLUS,ILYANASSA-OBSOLETA,ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION,DAPHNIA-MAGNA,biomarker,endocrine disruption,tributyltin,testosterone metabolism,neomysis integer,BIOTRANSFORMATION,MARINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {2030--2036},
  title        = {Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220910},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2003},
}

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