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Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation

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Abstract
Bird beaks are layered structures, which contain a bony core and an outer keratin layer. The elastic moduli of this bone and keratin were obtained in a previous study. However, the mechanical role and interaction of both materials in stress dissipation during seed crushing remain unknown. In this paper, a multi-layered finite-element (FE) model of the Java finch's upper beak (Padda oryzivora) is established. Validation measurements are conducted using in vivo bite forces and by comparing the displacements with those obtained by digital speckle pattern interferometry. Next, the Young modulus of bone and keratin in this FE model was optimized in order to obtain the smallest peak von Mises stress in the upper beak. To do so, we created a surrogate model, which also allows us to study the impact of changing material properties of both tissues on the peak stresses. The theoretically best values for both moduli in the Java finch are retrieved and correspond well with previous experimentally obtained values, suggesting that material properties are tuned to the mechanical demands imposed during seed crushing.
Keywords
finite-element model, beak, digital speckle pattern interferometry, bone, keratin, SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY, BITE FORCE, ALLIGATOR-MISSISSIPPIENSIS, FINCHES GEOSPIZA, DARWINS FINCHES, BONE, EVOLUTION, VALIDATION, STRAIN, HEAD

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Soons, Joris, Anthony Herrel, Annelies Genbrugge, Dominique Adriaens, Peter Aerts, and Joris Dirckx. 2012. “Multi-layered Bird Beaks : a Finite-element Approach Towards the Role of Keratin in Stress Dissipation.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 9 (73): 1787–1796.
APA
Soons, Joris, Herrel, A., Genbrugge, A., Adriaens, D., Aerts, P., & Dirckx, J. (2012). Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, 9(73), 1787–1796.
Vancouver
1.
Soons J, Herrel A, Genbrugge A, Adriaens D, Aerts P, Dirckx J. Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE. 2012;9(73):1787–96.
MLA
Soons, Joris, Anthony Herrel, Annelies Genbrugge, et al. “Multi-layered Bird Beaks : a Finite-element Approach Towards the Role of Keratin in Stress Dissipation.” JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE 9.73 (2012): 1787–1796. Print.
@article{2125902,
  abstract     = {Bird beaks are layered structures, which contain a bony core and an outer keratin layer. The elastic moduli of this bone and keratin were obtained in a previous study. However, the mechanical role and interaction of both materials in stress dissipation during seed crushing remain unknown. In this paper, a multi-layered finite-element (FE) model of the Java finch's upper beak (Padda oryzivora) is established. Validation measurements are conducted using in vivo bite forces and by comparing the displacements with those obtained by digital speckle pattern interferometry. Next, the Young modulus of bone and keratin in this FE model was optimized in order to obtain the smallest peak von Mises stress in the upper beak. To do so, we created a surrogate model, which also allows us to study the impact of changing material properties of both tissues on the peak stresses. The theoretically best values for both moduli in the Java finch are retrieved and correspond well with previous experimentally obtained values, suggesting that material properties are tuned to the mechanical demands imposed during seed crushing.},
  author       = {Soons, Joris and Herrel, Anthony and Genbrugge, Annelies and Adriaens, Dominique and Aerts, Peter and Dirckx, Joris},
  issn         = {1742-5689},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE},
  keyword      = {finite-element model,beak,digital speckle pattern interferometry,bone,keratin,SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY,BITE FORCE,ALLIGATOR-MISSISSIPPIENSIS,FINCHES GEOSPIZA,DARWINS FINCHES,BONE,EVOLUTION,VALIDATION,STRAIN,HEAD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {73},
  pages        = {1787--1796},
  title        = {Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2011.0910},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2012},
}

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