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Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

Tefera Belachew Lema UGent, Craig Hadley, David Lindtsrom, Yehnew Getachew, Luc Duchateau UGent and Patrick Kolsteren UGent (2011) REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY. 9.
abstract
Background: Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results: Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
Jimma, menarche, Food insecurity, adolescent girls, Ethiopia, SECULAR TRENDS, PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, TWIN FAMILIES, BURKINA-FASO, EXPERIENCE, SCHOOLGIRLS, HEALTH, LIFE, CONSEQUENCES, MALNUTRITION
journal title
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
volume
9
article number
125
pages
8 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000295371600001
JCR category
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY
JCR impact factor
2.045 (2011)
JCR rank
16/28 (2011)
JCR quartile
3 (2011)
ISSN
1477-7827
DOI
10.1186/1477-7827-9-125
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
2122024
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2122024
date created
2012-05-30 14:19:44
date last changed
2016-12-21 15:42:03
@article{2122024,
  abstract     = {Background: Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. 
Methods: We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. 
Results: Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P {\textlangle} 0.001). 
Conclusion: Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.},
  articleno    = {125},
  author       = {Lema, Tefera Belachew and Hadley, Craig and Lindtsrom, David  and Getachew, Yehnew and Duchateau, Luc and Kolsteren, Patrick},
  issn         = {1477-7827},
  journal      = {REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY},
  keyword      = {Jimma,menarche,Food insecurity,adolescent girls,Ethiopia,SECULAR TRENDS,PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT,TWIN FAMILIES,BURKINA-FASO,EXPERIENCE,SCHOOLGIRLS,HEALTH,LIFE,CONSEQUENCES,MALNUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-9-125},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Lema, Tefera Belachew, Craig Hadley, David Lindtsrom, Yehnew Getachew, Luc Duchateau, and Patrick Kolsteren. 2011. “Food Insecurity and Age at Menarche Among Adolescent Girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a Longitudinal Study.” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 9.
APA
Lema, T. B., Hadley, C., Lindtsrom, D., Getachew, Y., Duchateau, L., & Kolsteren, P. (2011). Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY, 9.
Vancouver
1.
Lema TB, Hadley C, Lindtsrom D, Getachew Y, Duchateau L, Kolsteren P. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY. 2011;9.
MLA
Lema, Tefera Belachew, Craig Hadley, David Lindtsrom, et al. “Food Insecurity and Age at Menarche Among Adolescent Girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a Longitudinal Study.” REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY 9 (2011): n. pag. Print.