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The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach: where do we draw the line?

Frederic Lens, Sharon Eeckhout UGent, Rosa Zwartjes, Erik Smets and Steven B Janssens (2012) ANNALS OF BOTANY. 109(4). p.783-799
abstract
Background and Aims : The family Balsaminaceae is essentially herbaceous, except for some woodier species that can be described as ‘woody’ herbs or small shrubs. The family is nested within the so-called balsaminoid clade of Ericales, including the exclusively woody families Tetrameristaceae and Marcgraviaceae, which is sister to the remaining families of the predominantly woody order. A molecular phylogeny of Balsaminaceae is compared with wood anatomical observations to find out whether the woodier species are derived from herb- aceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness in the family represents the ancestral state for the order (i.e. primary woodiness). Methods : Wood anatomical observations of 68 Impatiens species and Hydrocera triflora, of which 47 are included in a multigene phylogeny, are carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy and compared with the molecular phylogenetic insights. Key Results : There is much continuous variation in wood development between the Impatiens species studied, making the distinction between herbaceousness and woodiness difficult. However, the most woody species, un- ambiguously considered as truly woody shrubs, all display paedomorphic wood features pointing to secondary woodiness. This hypothesis is further supported by the molecular phylogeny, demonstrating that these most woody species are derived from herbaceous (or less woody) species in at least five independent clades. Wood formation in H. triflora is mostly confined to the ribs of the stems and shows paedomorphic wood features as well, suggesting that the common ancestor of Balsaminaceae was probably herbaceous. Conclusions : The terms ‘herbaceousness’ and ‘woodiness’ are notoriously difficult to use in Balsaminaceae. However, anatomical observations and molecular sequence data show that the woodier species are derived from less woody or clearly herbaceous species, demonstrating that secondary woodiness has evolved in parallel.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
insular woodiness, Impatiens, Hydrocera, herbaceousness, Balsaminaceae, light microscopy, primary woodiness, wood anatomy, secondary woodiness
journal title
ANNALS OF BOTANY
Ann. Bot.
volume
109
issue
4
pages
783 - 799
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000300731500010
JCR category
PLANT SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
3.449 (2012)
JCR rank
27/193 (2012)
JCR quartile
1 (2012)
ISSN
0305-7364
DOI
10.1093/aob/mcr310
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2119057
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2119057
date created
2012-05-30 09:08:02
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:42:56
@article{2119057,
  abstract     = {Background and Aims : The family Balsaminaceae is essentially herbaceous, except for some woodier species that can be described as {\textquoteleft}woody{\textquoteright} herbs or small shrubs. The family is nested within the so-called balsaminoid clade of Ericales, including the exclusively woody families Tetrameristaceae and Marcgraviaceae, which is sister to the remaining families of the predominantly woody order. A molecular phylogeny of Balsaminaceae is compared with wood anatomical observations to find out whether the woodier species are derived from herb- aceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness in the family represents the ancestral state for the order (i.e. primary woodiness).
Methods : Wood anatomical observations of 68 Impatiens species and Hydrocera triflora, of which 47 are included in a multigene phylogeny, are carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy and compared with the molecular phylogenetic insights.
Key Results : There is much continuous variation in wood development between the Impatiens species studied, making the distinction between herbaceousness and woodiness difficult. However, the most woody species, un- ambiguously considered as truly woody shrubs, all display paedomorphic wood features pointing to secondary woodiness. This hypothesis is further supported by the molecular phylogeny, demonstrating that these most woody species are derived from herbaceous (or less woody) species in at least five independent clades. Wood formation in H. triflora is mostly confined to the ribs of the stems and shows paedomorphic wood features as well, suggesting that the common ancestor of Balsaminaceae was probably herbaceous.
Conclusions : The terms {\textquoteleft}herbaceousness{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}woodiness{\textquoteright} are notoriously difficult to use in Balsaminaceae. However, anatomical observations and molecular sequence data show that the woodier species are derived from less woody or clearly herbaceous species, demonstrating that secondary woodiness has evolved in parallel.},
  author       = {Lens, Frederic and Eeckhout, Sharon and Zwartjes, Rosa  and Smets, Erik  and Janssens, Steven B},
  issn         = {0305-7364},
  journal      = {ANNALS OF BOTANY},
  keyword      = {insular woodiness,Impatiens,Hydrocera,herbaceousness,Balsaminaceae,light microscopy,primary woodiness,wood anatomy,secondary woodiness},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {783--799},
  title        = {The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach: where do we draw the line?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcr310},
  volume       = {109},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
Lens, Frederic, Sharon Eeckhout, Rosa Zwartjes, Erik Smets, and Steven B Janssens. 2012. “The Multiple Fuzzy Origins of Woodiness Within Balsaminaceae Using an Integrated Approach: Where Do We Draw the Line?” Annals of Botany 109 (4): 783–799.
APA
Lens, F., Eeckhout, S., Zwartjes, R., Smets, E., & Janssens, S. B. (2012). The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach: where do we draw the line? ANNALS OF BOTANY, 109(4), 783–799.
Vancouver
1.
Lens F, Eeckhout S, Zwartjes R, Smets E, Janssens SB. The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach: where do we draw the line? ANNALS OF BOTANY. 2012;109(4):783–99.
MLA
Lens, Frederic, Sharon Eeckhout, Rosa Zwartjes, et al. “The Multiple Fuzzy Origins of Woodiness Within Balsaminaceae Using an Integrated Approach: Where Do We Draw the Line?” ANNALS OF BOTANY 109.4 (2012): 783–799. Print.