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Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and their masked forms in food and feed products

Marthe De Boevre UGent, José Diana Di Mavungu UGent, Sofie Landschoot UGent, Kris Audenaert UGent, Mia Eeckhout UGent, Peter Maene UGent, Geert Haesaert UGent and Sarah De Saeger UGent (2012) WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 5(3). p.207-219
abstract
A total of 174 cereal-based food products and 86 compound feeds and raw ingredients were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin, and their respective masked mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-4-glucoside, α-zearalenol-4-glucoside, β-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. Fibre-enriched bread, bran-enriched bread, cornflakes, popcorn and oatmeal were collected in Belgian supermarkets and analysed during the period from April 2010 till October 2011. In absolute terms, all the analysed food samples were contaminated with an average of 3 to 8 mycotoxins, including 1 to 3 masked forms. Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences in mycotoxin contamination in the food commodities between the two years. Periodical differences (2010-2011) for the contamination level of cereal-based products were correlated with meteorological data from Belgium as the production of Fusarium-moulds is highly dependent on weather conditions such as high relative humidity and low temperature. An increased rainfall and relatively lower temperature in May 2010, and an overall lower relative humidity in 2011 probably explain the higher incidence of most mycotoxins in cereal-based food. Eighty-six feed samples were analysed for the occurrence of parent mycotoxins and their respective derivatives. Nineteen raw materials, which were used in the analysed compound feeds, were collected by the manufacturer. The raw materials (e.g. beet pulp, maize germs, maize gluten feed, wheat bran pellets) were chosen according to the frequency of application in the compound feeds. There was definitely a correlation between the compound feeds and the raw materials concerning contamination with parent and masked mycotoxins. Beet pulp, sunflower seed meal, soy bean and soy peel were hardly contaminated. The commodities which were mostly infected with deoxynivalenol and derivatives were maize and its by-products. Oats were as expected highly contaminated with T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin; also, wheat gluten feed, maize and wheat were contaminated. The raw materials which were highly contaminated with zearalenone were maize and its by-products. Also, the glucosylated and sulfated forms occurred in substantial amounts. As well, wheat and its by-products were contaminated with α-zearalenol (wheat gluten feed and wheat bran) and zearalenone (wheat). In conclusion, the amount of maize, wheat, oats, barley and their by-products played definitely a role in the contamination level of the compound feeds.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
LC-MS/MS METHOD, trichothecenes, FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS, ANIMAL FEED, DEOXYNIVALENOL, WHEAT, ZEARALENONE, DETOXIFICATION, CONTAMINATION, VALIDATION, CEREALS, masked mycotoxins, myco-estrogens, high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), Fusarium, food and feed
journal title
WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL
World Mycotoxin J.
volume
5
issue
3
pages
207 - 219
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000308031500002
JCR category
MYCOLOGY
JCR impact factor
2.541 (2012)
JCR rank
7/23 (2012)
JCR quartile
2 (2012)
ISSN
1875-0710
DOI
10.3920/WMJ2012.1410
project
MYCOMASK
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2118919
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2118919
date created
2012-05-30 08:52:39
date last changed
2013-07-08 12:03:52
@article{2118919,
  abstract     = {A total of 174 cereal-based food products and 86 compound feeds and raw ingredients were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, \ensuremath{\alpha}-zearalenol, \ensuremath{\beta}-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin, and their respective masked mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-4-glucoside, \ensuremath{\alpha}-zearalenol-4-glucoside, \ensuremath{\beta}-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. Fibre-enriched bread, bran-enriched bread, cornflakes, popcorn and oatmeal were collected in Belgian supermarkets and analysed during the period from April 2010 till October 2011. In absolute terms, all the analysed food samples were contaminated with an average of 3 to 8 mycotoxins, including 1 to 3 masked forms. Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences in mycotoxin contamination in the food commodities between the two years. Periodical differences (2010-2011) for the contamination level of cereal-based products were correlated with meteorological data from Belgium as the production of Fusarium-moulds is highly dependent on weather conditions such as high relative humidity and low temperature. An increased rainfall and relatively lower temperature in May 2010, and an overall lower relative humidity in 2011 probably explain the higher incidence of most mycotoxins in cereal-based food. Eighty-six feed samples were analysed for the occurrence of parent mycotoxins and their respective derivatives. Nineteen raw materials, which were used in the analysed compound feeds, were collected by the manufacturer. The raw materials (e.g. beet pulp, maize germs, maize gluten feed, wheat bran pellets) were chosen according to the frequency of application in the compound feeds. There was definitely a correlation between the compound feeds and the raw materials concerning contamination with parent and masked mycotoxins. Beet pulp, sunflower seed meal, soy bean and soy peel were hardly contaminated. The commodities which were mostly infected with deoxynivalenol and derivatives were maize and its by-products. Oats were as expected highly contaminated with T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin; also, wheat gluten feed, maize and wheat were contaminated. The raw materials which were highly contaminated with zearalenone were maize and its by-products. Also, the glucosylated and sulfated forms occurred in substantial amounts. As well, wheat and its by-products were contaminated with \ensuremath{\alpha}-zearalenol (wheat gluten feed and wheat bran) and zearalenone (wheat). In conclusion, the amount of maize, wheat, oats, barley and their by-products played definitely a role in the contamination level of the compound feeds.},
  author       = {De Boevre, Marthe and Diana Di Mavungu, Jos{\'e} and Landschoot, Sofie and Audenaert, Kris and Eeckhout, Mia and Maene, Peter and Haesaert, Geert and De Saeger, Sarah},
  issn         = {1875-0710},
  journal      = {WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {LC-MS/MS METHOD,trichothecenes,FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS,ANIMAL FEED,DEOXYNIVALENOL,WHEAT,ZEARALENONE,DETOXIFICATION,CONTAMINATION,VALIDATION,CEREALS,masked mycotoxins,myco-estrogens,high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS),Fusarium,food and feed},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {207--219},
  title        = {Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and their masked forms in food and feed products},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2012.1410},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
De Boevre, Marthe, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Kris Audenaert, Mia Eeckhout, Peter Maene, Geert Haesaert, and Sarah De Saeger. 2012. “Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Masked Forms in Food and Feed Products.” World Mycotoxin Journal 5 (3): 207–219.
APA
De Boevre, M., Diana Di Mavungu, J., Landschoot, S., Audenaert, K., Eeckhout, M., Maene, P., Haesaert, G., et al. (2012). Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and their masked forms in food and feed products. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL, 5(3), 207–219.
Vancouver
1.
De Boevre M, Diana Di Mavungu J, Landschoot S, Audenaert K, Eeckhout M, Maene P, et al. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and their masked forms in food and feed products. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 2012;5(3):207–19.
MLA
De Boevre, Marthe, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, et al. “Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Their Masked Forms in Food and Feed Products.” WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL 5.3 (2012): 207–219. Print.