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Sap flux density measurements based on the heat field deformation method

(2012) TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. 26(5). p.1439-1448
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Abstract
Accurate measurements of whole tree water use are needed in many scientific disciplines such as hydrology, ecophysiology, ecology, forestry, agronomy and climatology. Several techniques based on heat dissipation have been developed for this purpose. One of the latest developed techniques is the heat field deformation (HFD) method, which relies on continuous heating and the combination of a symmetrical and an asymmetrical temperature measurement. However, thus far the development of this method has not been fully described in the scientific literature. An understanding of its underlying principles is nevertheless essential to fully exploit the potential of this method as well as to better understand the results. This paper therefore structures the existing, but dispersed, data on the HFD method and explains its evolution from an initial ratio of temperature differences proportional to vapor pressure deficit to a fully operational and practically applicable sap flux density measurement system. It stresses the importance of HFD as a method that is capable of measuring low, high and reverse flows without necessitating zero flow conditions and on several sapwood depths to establish a radial profile. The combination of these features has not been included yet in other heat-based sap flow measurement systems, making the HFD method unique of its kind.
Keywords
Radial profile, Flow direction, Sensor, Thermal gradient, Tree water use, QUERCUS-SUBER TREE, WATER-USE, PULSE VELOCITY, HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION, THERMAL DISSIPATION, FLOW MEASUREMENT, NORWAY SPRUCE, SCOTS PINE, TRANSPIRATION, FOREST

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Chicago
Nadezhdina, Nadezhda, Maurits Vandegehuchte, and Kathy Steppe. 2012. “Sap Flux Density Measurements Based on the Heat Field Deformation Method.” Trees-structure and Function 26 (5): 1439–1448.
APA
Nadezhdina, Nadezhda, Vandegehuchte, M., & Steppe, K. (2012). Sap flux density measurements based on the heat field deformation method. TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, 26(5), 1439–1448.
Vancouver
1.
Nadezhdina N, Vandegehuchte M, Steppe K. Sap flux density measurements based on the heat field deformation method. TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. 2012;26(5):1439–48.
MLA
Nadezhdina, Nadezhda, Maurits Vandegehuchte, and Kathy Steppe. “Sap Flux Density Measurements Based on the Heat Field Deformation Method.” TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 26.5 (2012): 1439–1448. Print.
@article{2118838,
  abstract     = {Accurate measurements of whole tree water use are needed in many scientific disciplines such as hydrology, ecophysiology, ecology, forestry, agronomy and climatology. Several techniques based on heat dissipation have been developed for this purpose. One of the latest developed techniques is the heat field deformation (HFD) method, which relies on continuous heating and the combination of a symmetrical and an asymmetrical temperature measurement. However, thus far the development of this method has not been fully described in the scientific literature. An understanding of its underlying principles is nevertheless essential to fully exploit the potential of this method as well as to better understand the results. This paper therefore structures the existing, but dispersed, data on the HFD method and explains its evolution from an initial ratio of temperature differences proportional to vapor pressure deficit to a fully operational and practically applicable sap flux density measurement system. It stresses the importance of HFD as a method that is capable of measuring low, high and reverse flows without necessitating zero flow conditions and on several sapwood depths to establish a radial profile. The combination of these features has not been included yet in other heat-based sap flow measurement systems, making the HFD method unique of its kind.},
  author       = {Nadezhdina, Nadezhda and Vandegehuchte, Maurits and Steppe, Kathy},
  issn         = {0931-1890},
  journal      = {TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION},
  keyword      = {Radial profile,Flow direction,Sensor,Thermal gradient,Tree water use,QUERCUS-SUBER TREE,WATER-USE,PULSE VELOCITY,HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION,THERMAL DISSIPATION,FLOW MEASUREMENT,NORWAY SPRUCE,SCOTS PINE,TRANSPIRATION,FOREST},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1439--1448},
  title        = {Sap flux density measurements based on the heat field deformation method},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0718-3},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2012},
}

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