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DUID: oral fluid and blood confirmation compared in Belgium

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DRUID
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the number of drivers with drug concentrations above the legal cutoffs for driving under the influence of illicit substances in paired samples of blood and oral fluid. Between January 2008 and September 2009, 2,949 randomly selected drivers participated in a roadside survey. Each was asked to provide blood and oral fluid. Samples were analyzed for 11 illicit substances or metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Out of the 2,750 drivers who gave both blood and oral fluid, 28 (1.0%) had drug concentrations above the legal cutoff in blood and 71 (2.6%) were above the legal cutoff in oral fluid. Fifteen (7.5%) of the 199 drivers who gave an oral fluid sample but refused to provide blood tested positive, significantly more than drivers who provided both samples. Based on oral fluid analysis, 2.6 times more subjects tested positive for drugs compared to blood analysis. Those that refused to give a blood sample were 3 times more likely to test positive for drugs. Even in a survey that guaranteed total anonymity, people fearing a positive test result might have been more likely to refuse to give a blood sample.
Keywords
IMPAIRMENT, SAMPLE, ILLICIT DRUG-USE, QUEENSLAND MOTORISTS, DRIVERS, URINE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Van der Linden, Gertrude, Sara-Ann Legrand, Peter Silverans, and Alain Verstraete. 2012. “DUID: Oral Fluid and Blood Confirmation Compared in Belgium.” Journal of Analytical Toxicology 36 (6): 418–421.
APA
Van der Linden, G., Legrand, S.-A., Silverans, P., & Verstraete, A. (2012). DUID: oral fluid and blood confirmation compared in Belgium. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY, 36(6), 418–421.
Vancouver
1.
Van der Linden G, Legrand S-A, Silverans P, Verstraete A. DUID: oral fluid and blood confirmation compared in Belgium. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY. 2012;36(6):418–21.
MLA
Van der Linden, Gertrude, Sara-Ann Legrand, Peter Silverans, et al. “DUID: Oral Fluid and Blood Confirmation Compared in Belgium.” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY 36.6 (2012): 418–421. Print.
@article{2118751,
  abstract     = {The objective of this study was to compare the number of drivers with drug concentrations above the legal cutoffs for driving under the influence of illicit substances in paired samples of blood and oral fluid. Between January 2008 and September 2009, 2,949 randomly selected drivers participated in a roadside survey. Each was asked to provide blood and oral fluid. Samples were analyzed for 11 illicit substances or metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry. Out of the 2,750 drivers who gave both blood and oral fluid, 28 (1.0\%) had drug concentrations above the legal cutoff in blood and 71 (2.6\%) were above the legal cutoff in oral fluid. Fifteen (7.5\%) of the 199 drivers who gave an oral fluid sample but refused to provide blood tested positive, significantly more than drivers who provided both samples. Based on oral fluid analysis, 2.6 times more subjects tested positive for drugs compared to blood analysis. Those that refused to give a blood sample were 3 times more likely to test positive for drugs. Even in a survey that guaranteed total anonymity, people fearing a positive test result might have been more likely to refuse to give a blood sample.},
  author       = {Van der Linden, Gertrude and Legrand, Sara-Ann and Silverans, Peter and Verstraete, Alain},
  issn         = {0146-4760},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY},
  keyword      = {IMPAIRMENT,SAMPLE,ILLICIT DRUG-USE,QUEENSLAND MOTORISTS,DRIVERS,URINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {418--421},
  title        = {DUID: oral fluid and blood confirmation compared in Belgium},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bks038},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2012},
}

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