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New insights in the life cycle and epidemics of Phytophthora porri on leek

(2012) JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY. 160(2). p.67-75
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Abstract
White tip, caused by Phytophthora porri, is a devastating disease in the autumn and winter production of leek (Allium porrum) in Europe. This study investigated the disease cycle of P.porri in laboratory and field conditions. Oospores readily germinated in the presence of non-sterile soil extract at any temperature between 4 and 22 degrees C, with the formation of sporangia which released zoospores. The zoospores survived at least 7 weeks in water at a temperature range of 0 till 24 degrees C. Microscopic examinations revealed that zoospores encysted and germinated on the leek leaf surface and hyphae entered the leaf directly through stomata or by penetrating via appressoria. Oospores were formed in the leaves within 6 days, while sporangia were not produced. By monitoring disease progress in fields with a different cropping history of leek, it could be deduced that P.porri survives in soil for up to 4 years. Disease progress during three consecutive years was correlated with average daily rainfall in the infection period. Disease incidence on leek was reduced when rain splash was excluded by growing the plants in an open hoop greenhouse. Based on these findings, we propose a disease cycle for P.porri in which oospores germinate in puddles, and zoospores reach the leaves by rain splash and survive in water in the leaf axils, from where they infect the plant by direct penetration or via stomata. When conditions become unfavourable, oospores are produced in the leaves which again reach the soil when leaves decay. Secondary spread of the disease by sporangia does not seem to be important.
Keywords
disease cycle, Allium porrum, oomycete, oospores, rain-driven, white tip disease, F SP MEDICAGINIS, SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE, OOSPORE GERMINATION, SPLASH DISPERSAL, SALICYLIC-ACID, IN-VITRO, INFESTANS, CACTORUM, BLIGHT, SOIL

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Citation

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MLA
Declercq, Bart, Jasper Devlamynck, David De Vleesschauwer, et al. “New Insights in the Life Cycle and Epidemics of Phytophthora Porri on Leek.” JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY 160.2 (2012): 67–75. Print.
APA
Declercq, B., Devlamynck, J., De Vleesschauwer, D., Cap, N., De Nies, J., Pollet, S., & Höfte, M. (2012). New insights in the life cycle and epidemics of Phytophthora porri on leek. JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, 160(2), 67–75.
Chicago author-date
Declercq, Bart, Jasper Devlamynck, David De Vleesschauwer, Nathalie Cap, Joris De Nies, Sabien Pollet, and Monica Höfte. 2012. “New Insights in the Life Cycle and Epidemics of Phytophthora Porri on Leek.” Journal of Phytopathology 160 (2): 67–75.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Declercq, Bart, Jasper Devlamynck, David De Vleesschauwer, Nathalie Cap, Joris De Nies, Sabien Pollet, and Monica Höfte. 2012. “New Insights in the Life Cycle and Epidemics of Phytophthora Porri on Leek.” Journal of Phytopathology 160 (2): 67–75.
Vancouver
1.
Declercq B, Devlamynck J, De Vleesschauwer D, Cap N, De Nies J, Pollet S, et al. New insights in the life cycle and epidemics of Phytophthora porri on leek. JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY. 2012;160(2):67–75.
IEEE
[1]
B. Declercq et al., “New insights in the life cycle and epidemics of Phytophthora porri on leek,” JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 67–75, 2012.
@article{2117053,
  abstract     = {White tip, caused by Phytophthora porri, is a devastating disease in the autumn and winter production of leek (Allium porrum) in Europe. This study investigated the disease cycle of P.porri in laboratory and field conditions. Oospores readily germinated in the presence of non-sterile soil extract at any temperature between 4 and 22 degrees C, with the formation of sporangia which released zoospores. The zoospores survived at least 7 weeks in water at a temperature range of 0 till 24 degrees C. Microscopic examinations revealed that zoospores encysted and germinated on the leek leaf surface and hyphae entered the leaf directly through stomata or by penetrating via appressoria. Oospores were formed in the leaves within 6 days, while sporangia were not produced. By monitoring disease progress in fields with a different cropping history of leek, it could be deduced that P.porri survives in soil for up to 4 years. Disease progress during three consecutive years was correlated with average daily rainfall in the infection period. Disease incidence on leek was reduced when rain splash was excluded by growing the plants in an open hoop greenhouse. Based on these findings, we propose a disease cycle for P.porri in which oospores germinate in puddles, and zoospores reach the leaves by rain splash and survive in water in the leaf axils, from where they infect the plant by direct penetration or via stomata. When conditions become unfavourable, oospores are produced in the leaves which again reach the soil when leaves decay. Secondary spread of the disease by sporangia does not seem to be important.},
  author       = {Declercq, Bart and Devlamynck, Jasper and De Vleesschauwer, David and Cap, Nathalie and De Nies, Joris and Pollet, Sabien and Höfte, Monica},
  issn         = {0931-1785},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {disease cycle,Allium porrum,oomycete,oospores,rain-driven,white tip disease,F SP MEDICAGINIS,SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE,OOSPORE GERMINATION,SPLASH DISPERSAL,SALICYLIC-ACID,IN-VITRO,INFESTANS,CACTORUM,BLIGHT,SOIL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {67--75},
  title        = {New insights in the life cycle and epidemics of Phytophthora porri on leek},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2011.01860.x},
  volume       = {160},
  year         = {2012},
}

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