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Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS

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Abstract
We present Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and radio follow-up observations of two Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS)-detected strongly lensed distant galaxies. In one of the targeted galaxies H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP. 81), we detect [O III] 88 mu m and [C II] 158 mu m lines at a signal-to-noise ratio of similar to 5. We do not have any positive line identification in the other fainter target H-ATLAS J091305.0-005343 (SDP. 130). Currently, SDP. 81 is the faintest submillimetre galaxy with positive line detections with the FTS, with continuum flux just below 200 mJy in the 200-600 mu m wavelength range. The derived redshift of SDP. 81 from the two detections is z = 3.043 +/- 0.012, in agreement with ground-based CO measurements. This is the first detection by Herschel of the [O III] 88 mu m line in a galaxy at redshift higher than 0.05. Comparing the observed lines and line ratios with a grid of photodissociation region (PDR) models with different physical conditions, we derive the PDR cloud density n approximate to 2000 cm(-3) and the far-ultraviolet ionizing radiation field G(0) approximate to 200 (in units of the Habing field - the local Galactic interstellar radiation field of 1.6 x 10(-6) W m(-2)). Using the CO-derived molecular mass and the PDR properties, we estimate the effective radius of the emitting region to be 500-700 pc. These characteristics are typical for star-forming, high-redshift galaxies. The radio observations indicate that SDP. 81 deviates significantly from the local far-infrared/radio (FIR/radio) correlation, which hints that some fraction of the radio emission is coming from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The constraints on the source size from millimetre-wave observations put a very conservative upper limit of the possible AGN contribution to less than 33 per cent. These indications, together with the high [OIII]/FIR ratio and the upper limit of [O I] 63 mu m/[C II] 158 mu m, suggest that some fraction of the ionizing radiation is likely to originate from the AGN.
Keywords
galaxies: evolution, galaxies: individual: SDP.81: H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906, galaxies: individual: SDP.130: H-ATLAS J091305.0-005343, infrared: galaxies, radio continuum: galaxies, submillimetre: ISM, FAR-INFRARED/RADIO CORRELATION, C-II LINE, STAR-FORMATION, MU-M, PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS, EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, SPIRE INSTRUMENT, EARLY UNIVERSE, MOLECULAR GAS

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MLA
Valtchanov, I, J Virdee, RJ Ivison, et al. “Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium of High-redshift, Strongly Lensed Submillimetre Galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 415.4 (2011): 3473–3484. Print.
APA
Valtchanov, I., Virdee, J., Ivison, R., Swinyard, B., van der Werf, P., Rigopoulou, D., da Cunha, E., et al. (2011). Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 415(4), 3473–3484.
Chicago author-date
Valtchanov, I, J Virdee, RJ Ivison, B Swinyard, P van der Werf, D Rigopoulou, E da Cunha, et al. 2011. “Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium of High-redshift, Strongly Lensed Submillimetre Galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 415 (4): 3473–3484.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Valtchanov, I, J Virdee, RJ Ivison, B Swinyard, P van der Werf, D Rigopoulou, E da Cunha, R Lupu, DJ Benford, D Riechers, I Smail, M Jarvis, C Pearson, H Gomez, R Hopwood, B Altieri, M Birkinshaw, D Coia, L Conversi, A Cooray, G De Zotti, L Dunne, D Frayer, L Leeuw, A Marston, M Negrello, MS Portal, D Scott, MA Thompson, M Vaccari, Maarten Baes, D Clements, MJ Michalowski, H Dannerbauer, S Serjeant, R Auld, S Buttiglione, A Cava, A Dariush, S Dye, S Eales, Jacopo Fritz, E Ibar, S Maddox, E Pascale, M Pohlen, E Rigby, G Rodighiero, DJB Smith, P Temi, J Carpenter, A Bolatto, M Gurwell, and JD Vieira. 2011. “Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium of High-redshift, Strongly Lensed Submillimetre Galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 415 (4): 3473–3484.
Vancouver
1.
Valtchanov I, Virdee J, Ivison R, Swinyard B, van der Werf P, Rigopoulou D, et al. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2011;415(4):3473–84.
IEEE
[1]
I. Valtchanov et al., “Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 415, no. 4, pp. 3473–3484, 2011.
@article{2113993,
  abstract     = {{We present Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and radio follow-up observations of two Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS)-detected strongly lensed distant galaxies. In one of the targeted galaxies H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP. 81), we detect [O III] 88 mu m and [C II] 158 mu m lines at a signal-to-noise ratio of similar to 5. We do not have any positive line identification in the other fainter target H-ATLAS J091305.0-005343 (SDP. 130). Currently, SDP. 81 is the faintest submillimetre galaxy with positive line detections with the FTS, with continuum flux just below 200 mJy in the 200-600 mu m wavelength range. The derived redshift of SDP. 81 from the two detections is z = 3.043 +/- 0.012, in agreement with ground-based CO measurements. This is the first detection by Herschel of the [O III] 88 mu m line in a galaxy at redshift higher than 0.05. Comparing the observed lines and line ratios with a grid of photodissociation region (PDR) models with different physical conditions, we derive the PDR cloud density n approximate to 2000 cm(-3) and the far-ultraviolet ionizing radiation field G(0) approximate to 200 (in units of the Habing field - the local Galactic interstellar radiation field of 1.6 x 10(-6) W m(-2)). Using the CO-derived molecular mass and the PDR properties, we estimate the effective radius of the emitting region to be 500-700 pc. These characteristics are typical for star-forming, high-redshift galaxies. The radio observations indicate that SDP. 81 deviates significantly from the local far-infrared/radio (FIR/radio) correlation, which hints that some fraction of the radio emission is coming from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The constraints on the source size from millimetre-wave observations put a very conservative upper limit of the possible AGN contribution to less than 33 per cent. These indications, together with the high [OIII]/FIR ratio and the upper limit of [O I] 63 mu m/[C II] 158 mu m, suggest that some fraction of the ionizing radiation is likely to originate from the AGN.}},
  author       = {{Valtchanov, I and Virdee, J and Ivison, RJ and Swinyard, B and van der Werf, P and Rigopoulou, D and da Cunha, E and Lupu, R and Benford, DJ and Riechers, D and Smail, I and Jarvis, M and Pearson, C and Gomez, H and Hopwood, R and Altieri, B and Birkinshaw, M and Coia, D and Conversi, L and Cooray, A and De Zotti, G and Dunne, L and Frayer, D and Leeuw, L and Marston, A and Negrello, M and Portal, MS and Scott, D and Thompson, MA and Vaccari, M and Baes, Maarten and Clements, D and Michalowski, MJ and Dannerbauer, H and Serjeant, S and Auld, R and Buttiglione, S and Cava, A and Dariush, A and Dye, S and Eales, S and Fritz, Jacopo and Ibar, E and Maddox, S and Pascale, E and Pohlen, M and Rigby, E and Rodighiero, G and Smith, DJB and Temi, P and Carpenter, J and Bolatto, A and Gurwell, M and Vieira, JD}},
  issn         = {{0035-8711}},
  journal      = {{MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY}},
  keywords     = {{galaxies: evolution,galaxies: individual: SDP.81: H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906,galaxies: individual: SDP.130: H-ATLAS J091305.0-005343,infrared: galaxies,radio continuum: galaxies,submillimetre: ISM,FAR-INFRARED/RADIO CORRELATION,C-II LINE,STAR-FORMATION,MU-M,PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS,EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES,PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS,SPIRE INSTRUMENT,EARLY UNIVERSE,MOLECULAR GAS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{3473--3484}},
  title        = {{Physical conditions of the interstellar medium of high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimetre galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18959.x}},
  volume       = {{415}},
  year         = {{2011}},
}

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