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Efficient three-dimensional NLTE dust radiative transfer with SKIRT

Maarten Baes UGent, Joris Verstappen UGent, Ilse De Looze UGent, Jacopo Fritz UGent, Waad Saftly UGent, Edgardo Andrés Vidal Pérez UGent, Marko Stalevski UGent and Sander Valcke UGent (2011) ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES. 196(2).
abstract
We present an updated version of SKIRT, a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code developed to simulate dusty galaxies. The main novel characteristics of the SKIRT code are the use of a stellar foam to generate random positions, an efficient combination of eternal forced scattering and continuous absorption, and a new library approach that links the radiative transfer code to the DustEM dust emission library. This approach enables a fast, accurate, and self-consistent calculation of the dust emission of arbitrary mixtures of transiently heated dust grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, even for full 3D models containing millions of dust cells. We have demonstrated the accuracy of the SKIRT code through a set of simulations based on the edge-on spiral galaxy UGC 4754. The models we ran were gradually refined from a smooth, two-dimensional, local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model to a fully 3D model that includes non-LTE (NLTE) dust emission and a clumpy structure of the dusty interstellar medium. We find that clumpy models absorb UV and optical radiation less efficiently than smooth models with the same amount of dust, and that the dust in clumpy models is on average both cooler and less luminous. Our simulations demonstrate that, given the appropriate use of optimization techniques, it is possible to efficiently and accurately run Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations of arbitrary 3D structures of several million dust cells, including a full calculation of the NLTE emission by arbitrary dust mixtures.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
extinction, infrared: galaxies, dust, galaxies: individual (UGC 4754), galaxies: ISM, radiative transfer, MULTI-GAUSSIAN EXPANSION, TRANSIENTLY HEATED PARTICLES, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION, MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS, SPIRAL GALAXIES, INTERSTELLAR DUST, HERSCHEL-ATLAS, DISC GALAXIES, TEMPERATURE-FLUCTUATIONS, INFRARED-EMISSION
journal title
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES
Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.
volume
196
issue
2
article_number
22
pages
15 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000295844500008
JCR category
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
JCR impact factor
13.456 (2011)
JCR rank
2/56 (2011)
JCR quartile
1 (2011)
ISSN
0067-0049
DOI
10.1088/0067-0049/196/2/22
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2113915
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2113915
date created
2012-05-25 14:44:09
date last changed
2012-05-30 10:34:35
@article{2113915,
  abstract     = {We present an updated version of SKIRT, a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code developed to simulate dusty galaxies. The main novel characteristics of the SKIRT code are the use of a stellar foam to generate random positions, an efficient combination of eternal forced scattering and continuous absorption, and a new library approach that links the radiative transfer code to the DustEM dust emission library. This approach enables a fast, accurate, and self-consistent calculation of the dust emission of arbitrary mixtures of transiently heated dust grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, even for full 3D models containing millions of dust cells. We have demonstrated the accuracy of the SKIRT code through a set of simulations based on the edge-on spiral galaxy UGC 4754. The models we ran were gradually refined from a smooth, two-dimensional, local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model to a fully 3D model that includes non-LTE (NLTE) dust emission and a clumpy structure of the dusty interstellar medium. We find that clumpy models absorb UV and optical radiation less efficiently than smooth models with the same amount of dust, and that the dust in clumpy models is on average both cooler and less luminous. Our simulations demonstrate that, given the appropriate use of optimization techniques, it is possible to efficiently and accurately run Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations of arbitrary 3D structures of several million dust cells, including a full calculation of the NLTE emission by arbitrary dust mixtures.},
  articleno    = {22},
  author       = {Baes, Maarten and Verstappen, Joris and De Looze, Ilse and Fritz, Jacopo and Saftly, Waad and Vidal P{\'e}rez, Edgardo Andr{\'e}s and Stalevski, Marko and Valcke, Sander},
  issn         = {0067-0049},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES},
  keyword      = {extinction,infrared: galaxies,dust,galaxies: individual (UGC 4754),galaxies: ISM,radiative transfer,MULTI-GAUSSIAN EXPANSION,TRANSIENTLY HEATED PARTICLES,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION,MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS,SPIRAL GALAXIES,INTERSTELLAR DUST,HERSCHEL-ATLAS,DISC GALAXIES,TEMPERATURE-FLUCTUATIONS,INFRARED-EMISSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {15},
  title        = {Efficient three-dimensional NLTE dust radiative transfer with SKIRT},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/196/2/22},
  volume       = {196},
  year         = {2011},
}

Chicago
Baes, Maarten, Joris Verstappen, Ilse De Looze, Jacopo Fritz, Waad Saftly, Edgardo Andrés Vidal Pérez, Marko Stalevski, and Sander Valcke. 2011. “Efficient Three-dimensional NLTE Dust Radiative Transfer with SKIRT.” Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 196 (2).
APA
Baes, M., Verstappen, J., De Looze, I., Fritz, J., Saftly, W., Vidal Pérez, E. A., Stalevski, M., et al. (2011). Efficient three-dimensional NLTE dust radiative transfer with SKIRT. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, 196(2).
Vancouver
1.
Baes M, Verstappen J, De Looze I, Fritz J, Saftly W, Vidal Pérez EA, et al. Efficient three-dimensional NLTE dust radiative transfer with SKIRT. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES. 2011;196(2).
MLA
Baes, Maarten, Joris Verstappen, Ilse De Looze, et al. “Efficient Three-dimensional NLTE Dust Radiative Transfer with SKIRT.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 196.2 (2011): n. pag. Print.