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Panchromatic radiative transfer modelling of stars and dust in the Sombrero galaxy

Ilse De Looze (UGent) , Maarten Baes (UGent) , Jacopo Fritz (UGent) and Joris Verstappen (UGent)
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Abstract
We present a detailed study of the dust energy balance in the Sombrero galaxy M104. From a full radiative transfer analysis, including scattering, absorption and thermal re-emission, we construct models that can reproduce images at optical/near-infrared (near-IR) wavelengths, the observed stellar spectral energy distribution and the minor axis extinction profiles in the V and R-C band. A standard model, which contains only an old stellar population to heat the dust, underestimates the observations of dust emission at IR wavelengths by a factor of similar to 3. Supplementing this basic model with a young stellar component of low star formation activity in both the inner disc (star formation rate, SFR similar to 0.21 M-circle dot yr(-1)) and dust ring (SFR similar to 0.05 M-circle dot yr(-1)), we are capable of solving the discrepancy in the dust energy budget of the Sombrero galaxy at wavelengths shortwards of 100 mu m. To account for the increased far-IR/submm emission beyond 100 mu m, we propose an additional dust component distributed in quiescent clumps. This model with a clumpy dust structure predicts three-quarters of the total dust content (similar to 2.8 x 10(7) M-circle dot) to reside in compact dust clouds with no associated embedded sources. Although the assumption of a clumpy dust structure in the Sombrero galaxy is supported by high-resolution optical data, we cannot rule out the possibility that dust grains with a higher dust emissivity account for part of the discrepancy in the energy budget at submm wavelengths.
Keywords
dust, radiative transfer, extinction, galaxies: individual: M104, galaxies: ISM, infrared: galaxies, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION, GLOBULAR-CLUSTER SYSTEMS, EVOLUTIONARY POPULATION SYNTHESIS, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, X-RAY-EMISSION, SPIRAL GALAXIES, NEARBY GALAXIES, FORMATION RATES, ELLIPTIC GALAXIES, DISC GALAXIES

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Chicago
De Looze, Ilse, Maarten Baes, Jacopo Fritz, and Joris Verstappen. 2012. “Panchromatic Radiative Transfer Modelling of Stars and Dust in the Sombrero Galaxy.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 419 (1): 895–903.
APA
De Looze, Ilse, Baes, M., Fritz, J., & Verstappen, J. (2012). Panchromatic radiative transfer modelling of stars and dust in the Sombrero galaxy. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 419(1), 895–903.
Vancouver
1.
De Looze I, Baes M, Fritz J, Verstappen J. Panchromatic radiative transfer modelling of stars and dust in the Sombrero galaxy. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2012;419(1):895–903.
MLA
De Looze, Ilse, Maarten Baes, Jacopo Fritz, et al. “Panchromatic Radiative Transfer Modelling of Stars and Dust in the Sombrero Galaxy.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 419.1 (2012): 895–903. Print.
@article{2113603,
  abstract     = {We present a detailed study of the dust energy balance in the Sombrero galaxy M104. From a full radiative transfer analysis, including scattering, absorption and thermal re-emission, we construct models that can reproduce images at optical/near-infrared (near-IR) wavelengths, the observed stellar spectral energy distribution and the minor axis extinction profiles in the V and R-C band. A standard model, which contains only an old stellar population to heat the dust, underestimates the observations of dust emission at IR wavelengths by a factor of similar to 3. Supplementing this basic model with a young stellar component of low star formation activity in both the inner disc (star formation rate, SFR similar to 0.21 M-circle dot yr(-1)) and dust ring (SFR similar to 0.05 M-circle dot yr(-1)), we are capable of solving the discrepancy in the dust energy budget of the Sombrero galaxy at wavelengths shortwards of 100 mu m. To account for the increased far-IR/submm emission beyond 100 mu m, we propose an additional dust component distributed in quiescent clumps. This model with a clumpy dust structure predicts three-quarters of the total dust content (similar to 2.8 x 10(7) M-circle dot) to reside in compact dust clouds with no associated embedded sources. Although the assumption of a clumpy dust structure in the Sombrero galaxy is supported by high-resolution optical data, we cannot rule out the possibility that dust grains with a higher dust emissivity account for part of the discrepancy in the energy budget at submm wavelengths.},
  author       = {De Looze, Ilse and Baes, Maarten and Fritz, Jacopo and Verstappen, Joris},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {dust,radiative transfer,extinction,galaxies: individual: M104,galaxies: ISM,infrared: galaxies,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTION,GLOBULAR-CLUSTER SYSTEMS,EVOLUTIONARY POPULATION SYNTHESIS,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,X-RAY-EMISSION,SPIRAL GALAXIES,NEARBY GALAXIES,FORMATION RATES,ELLIPTIC GALAXIES,DISC GALAXIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {895--903},
  title        = {Panchromatic radiative transfer modelling of stars and dust in the Sombrero galaxy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19759.x},
  volume       = {419},
  year         = {2012},
}

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