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Fewer pre-emptive renal transplantations and more rejections in immigrant children compared to native Dutch and Belgian children

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Abstract
Background. In the Netherlands and Belgium, an increasing number of children who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are of non-Western origin. We analysed renal transplantation practices and outcome for immigrant ESRD children as compared to native children in both countries. Methods. All Dutch and Belgian children aged <19 years who received their first renal transplantation between 1 September 2007 and 1 January 2011 were included. Therapy characteristics and outcomes were registered prospectively on a 3-monthly basis. Immigrants were defined as children of whom one or both parents had been born outside Western European countries. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the hazard ratio for acute rejection. Results. One hundred and nineteen first renal transplant recipients were included, of which 41 (34%) were immigrants. Median [range] follow-up time of transplantation was 18 [2-28] months. Compared to native children, immigrants had pre-emptive transplantations (15 versus 32%, P = 0.040) and transplantations with a kidney from a living donor less often (24 versus 59%, P < 0.001). Survival analysis in 96 children with at least 3 months of follow-up showed an increased risk for acute rejection in immigrants adjusted for donor source, duration of dialysis and number of HLA mismatches on the DR locus [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.5 (1.1-5.9)]. Conclusions. Immigrant children receive fewer pre-emptive and living donor transplantations compared to native children. After transplantation, immigrant children are at higher risk for acute rejection irrespective of the mode of transplantation.
Keywords
children, acute rejection episode, ethnicity, immigrants, pre-emptive transplantation, NETHERLANDS, SURVIVAL, DIALYSIS, ASTHMA

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Chicago
Tromp, Wilma F, Karlien Cransberg, Johanna H van der Lee, Antonia H Bouts, Laure Collard, Rita Van Damme-Lombaerts, Nathalie Godefroid, et al. 2012. “Fewer Pre-emptive Renal Transplantations and More Rejections in Immigrant Children Compared to Native Dutch and Belgian Children.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 27 (6): 2588–2593.
APA
Tromp, W. F., Cransberg, K., van der Lee, J. H., Bouts, A. H., Collard, L., Van Damme-Lombaerts, R., Godefroid, N., et al. (2012). Fewer pre-emptive renal transplantations and more rejections in immigrant children compared to native Dutch and Belgian children. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION, 27(6), 2588–2593.
Vancouver
1.
Tromp WF, Cransberg K, van der Lee JH, Bouts AH, Collard L, Van Damme-Lombaerts R, et al. Fewer pre-emptive renal transplantations and more rejections in immigrant children compared to native Dutch and Belgian children. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION. 2012;27(6):2588–93.
MLA
Tromp, Wilma F, Karlien Cransberg, Johanna H van der Lee, et al. “Fewer Pre-emptive Renal Transplantations and More Rejections in Immigrant Children Compared to Native Dutch and Belgian Children.” NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION 27.6 (2012): 2588–2593. Print.
@article{2112718,
  abstract     = {Background. In the Netherlands and Belgium, an increasing number of children who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are of non-Western origin. We analysed renal transplantation practices and outcome for immigrant ESRD children as compared to native children in both countries. 
Methods. All Dutch and Belgian children aged {\textlangle}19 years who received their first renal transplantation between 1 September 2007 and 1 January 2011 were included. Therapy characteristics and outcomes were registered prospectively on a 3-monthly basis. Immigrants were defined as children of whom one or both parents had been born outside Western European countries. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the hazard ratio for acute rejection. 
Results. One hundred and nineteen first renal transplant recipients were included, of which 41 (34\%) were immigrants. Median [range] follow-up time of transplantation was 18 [2-28] months. Compared to native children, immigrants had pre-emptive transplantations (15 versus 32\%, P = 0.040) and transplantations with a kidney from a living donor less often (24 versus 59\%, P {\textlangle} 0.001). Survival analysis in 96 children with at least 3 months of follow-up showed an increased risk for acute rejection in immigrants adjusted for donor source, duration of dialysis and number of HLA mismatches on the DR locus [hazard ratio (95\% confidence interval) 2.5 (1.1-5.9)]. 
Conclusions. Immigrant children receive fewer pre-emptive and living donor transplantations compared to native children. After transplantation, immigrant children are at higher risk for acute rejection irrespective of the mode of transplantation.},
  author       = {Tromp, Wilma F and Cransberg, Karlien and van der Lee, Johanna H and Bouts, Antonia H and Collard, Laure and Van Damme-Lombaerts, Rita and Godefroid, Nathalie and Van Hoeck, Koenraad J and Koster-Kamphuis, Linda and Lilien, Marc R and Raes, Ann and Ranguelov, Nadejda and Groothoff, Jaap W},
  issn         = {0931-0509},
  journal      = {NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION},
  keyword      = {children,acute rejection episode,ethnicity,immigrants,pre-emptive transplantation,NETHERLANDS,SURVIVAL,DIALYSIS,ASTHMA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {2588--2593},
  title        = {Fewer pre-emptive renal transplantations and more rejections in immigrant children compared to native Dutch and Belgian children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfr628},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2012},
}

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