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Use of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR analyses of Escherichia coli isolates to identify nonpoint fecal sources

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Abstract
Despite efforts to minimize fecal input into waterways, this kind of pollution continues to be a problem due to an inability to reliably identify nonpoint sources. Our objective was to find candidate source-specific Escherichia coli fingerprints as potential genotypic markers for raw sewage, horses, dogs, gulls, and cows. We evaluated 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR)-PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates as tools to identify nonpoint fecal sources. The BOXA1R primer was used for rep-PCR analysis. A total of 267 E. coli isolates from different fecal sources were typed with both techniques. E. coli was found to be highly diverse. Only two candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprints, one for cow and one for raw sewage, were identified out of 87 ISR fingerprints. Similarly, there was only one candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprint for horse out of 59 BOX fingerprints. Jackknife analysis resulted in an average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 83% for BOX-PCR analysis and 67% for ISR-PCR analysis for the five source categories of this study. When nonhuman sources were pooled so that each isolate was classified as animal or human derived (raw sewage), ARCCs of 82% for BOX-PCR analysis and 72% for ISR-PCR analysis were obtained. Critical factors affecting the utility of these methods, namely sample size and fingerprint stability, were also assessed. Chao1 estimation showed that generally 32 isolates per fecal source individual were sufficient to characterize the richness of the E. coli population of that source. The results of a fingerprint stability experiment indicated that BOX and ISR fingerprints were stable in natural waters at 4, 12, and 28degreesC for 150 days. In conclusion, 16S-23S rRNA ISR-PCR and rep-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates have the potential to identify nonpoint fecal sources. A fairly small number of isolates was needed to find candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprints that were stable under the simulated environmental conditions.
Keywords
POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION, ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE PATTERNS, DISCRIMINANT-ANALYSIS, GENETIC-STRUCTURE, COASTAL WATERS, ANIMAL SOURCES, DNA-SEQUENCES, POLLUTION, BACTERIA, POPULATIONS

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Citation

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MLA
Seurinck, Sylvie, Willy Verstraete, and Steven D Siciliano. “Use of 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Region PCR and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Analyses of Escherichia Coli Isolates to Identify Nonpoint Fecal Sources.” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 69.8 (2003): 4942–4950. Print.
APA
Seurinck, S., Verstraete, W., & Siciliano, S. D. (2003). Use of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR analyses of Escherichia coli isolates to identify nonpoint fecal sources. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 69(8), 4942–4950.
Chicago author-date
Seurinck, Sylvie, Willy Verstraete, and Steven D Siciliano. 2003. “Use of 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Region PCR and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Analyses of Escherichia Coli Isolates to Identify Nonpoint Fecal Sources.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69 (8): 4942–4950.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Seurinck, Sylvie, Willy Verstraete, and Steven D Siciliano. 2003. “Use of 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Region PCR and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Analyses of Escherichia Coli Isolates to Identify Nonpoint Fecal Sources.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69 (8): 4942–4950.
Vancouver
1.
Seurinck S, Verstraete W, Siciliano SD. Use of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR analyses of Escherichia coli isolates to identify nonpoint fecal sources. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 2003;69(8):4942–50.
IEEE
[1]
S. Seurinck, W. Verstraete, and S. D. Siciliano, “Use of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR analyses of Escherichia coli isolates to identify nonpoint fecal sources,” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 4942–4950, 2003.
@article{211178,
  abstract     = {Despite efforts to minimize fecal input into waterways, this kind of pollution continues to be a problem due to an inability to reliably identify nonpoint sources. Our objective was to find candidate source-specific Escherichia coli fingerprints as potential genotypic markers for raw sewage, horses, dogs, gulls, and cows. We evaluated 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR)-PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates as tools to identify nonpoint fecal sources. The BOXA1R primer was used for rep-PCR analysis. A total of 267 E. coli isolates from different fecal sources were typed with both techniques. E. coli was found to be highly diverse. Only two candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprints, one for cow and one for raw sewage, were identified out of 87 ISR fingerprints. Similarly, there was only one candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprint for horse out of 59 BOX fingerprints. Jackknife analysis resulted in an average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 83% for BOX-PCR analysis and 67% for ISR-PCR analysis for the five source categories of this study. When nonhuman sources were pooled so that each isolate was classified as animal or human derived (raw sewage), ARCCs of 82% for BOX-PCR analysis and 72% for ISR-PCR analysis were obtained. Critical factors affecting the utility of these methods, namely sample size and fingerprint stability, were also assessed. Chao1 estimation showed that generally 32 isolates per fecal source individual were sufficient to characterize the richness of the E. coli population of that source. The results of a fingerprint stability experiment indicated that BOX and ISR fingerprints were stable in natural waters at 4, 12, and 28degreesC for 150 days. In conclusion, 16S-23S rRNA ISR-PCR and rep-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates have the potential to identify nonpoint fecal sources. A fairly small number of isolates was needed to find candidate source-specific E. coli fingerprints that were stable under the simulated environmental conditions.},
  author       = {Seurinck, Sylvie and Verstraete, Willy and Siciliano, Steven D},
  issn         = {0099-2240},
  journal      = {APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION,ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE PATTERNS,DISCRIMINANT-ANALYSIS,GENETIC-STRUCTURE,COASTAL WATERS,ANIMAL SOURCES,DNA-SEQUENCES,POLLUTION,BACTERIA,POPULATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {4942--4950},
  title        = {Use of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR analyses of Escherichia coli isolates to identify nonpoint fecal sources},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.8.4942-4950.2003},
  volume       = {69},
  year         = {2003},
}

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