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Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice

(2012) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 158(4). p.1833-1846
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Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA-and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy.
Keywords
PLANT-GROWTH, TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, DELLA PROTEIN SLR1, DISEASE RESISTANCE, GENE-EXPRESSION, FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS, RECEPTOR KINASES, STRESS TOLERANCE

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Citation

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Chicago
De Vleesschauwer, David, Evelien Van Buyten, Kouji Satoh, Johny Balidion, Ramil Mauleon, Il-Ryong Choi, Casiana Vera-Cruz, Shoshi Kikuchi, and Monica Höfte. 2012. “Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-mediated Root Immunity in Rice.” Plant Physiology 158 (4): 1833–1846.
APA
De Vleesschauwer, D., Van Buyten, E., Satoh, K., Balidion, J., Mauleon, R., Choi, I.-R., Vera-Cruz, C., et al. (2012). Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 158(4), 1833–1846.
Vancouver
1.
De Vleesschauwer D, Van Buyten E, Satoh K, Balidion J, Mauleon R, Choi I-R, et al. Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2012;158(4):1833–46.
MLA
De Vleesschauwer, David, Evelien Van Buyten, Kouji Satoh, et al. “Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-mediated Root Immunity in Rice.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 158.4 (2012): 1833–1846. Print.
@article{2104540,
  abstract     = {Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA-and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy.},
  author       = {De Vleesschauwer, David and Van Buyten, Evelien and Satoh, Kouji and Balidion, Johny and Mauleon, Ramil and Choi, Il-Ryong and Vera-Cruz, Casiana and Kikuchi, Shoshi and H{\"o}fte, Monica},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {PLANT-GROWTH,TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS,SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,DELLA PROTEIN SLR1,DISEASE RESISTANCE,GENE-EXPRESSION,FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS,RECEPTOR KINASES,STRESS TOLERANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1833--1846},
  title        = {Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.193672},
  volume       = {158},
  year         = {2012},
}

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