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A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model

Sophie De Mits (UGent) , Veerle Segers (UGent) , Jim Woodburn, Dirk Elewaut (UGent) , Dirk De Clercq (UGent) and Philip Roosen (UGent)
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Abstract
We describe a multi-segmented foot model comprising lower leg, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and hallux for routine use in a clinical setting. The Ghent Foot Model describes the kinematic patterns of functional units of the foot, especially the midfoot, to investigate patient populations where midfoot deformation or dysfunction is an important feature, for example, rheumatoid arthritis patients. Data were obtained from surface markers by a 6 camera motion capture system at 500 Hz. Ten healthy subjects walked barefoot along a 12 m walkway at self-selected speed. Joint angles (rearfoot to shank, midfoot to rearfoot, lateral and medial forefoot to midfoot, and hallux to medial forefoot) in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane are reported according to anatomically based reference frames. These angles were calculated and reported during the foot rollover phases in stance, detected by synchronized plantar pressure measurements. Repeated measurements of each subject revealed low intra-subject variability, varying between 0.7 degrees and 2.3 degrees for the minimum values, between 0.5 degrees and 2.1 degrees for the maximum values, and between 0.8 degrees and 5.8 degrees for the ROM. The described movement patterns were repeatable and consistent with biomechanical and clinical knowledge. As such, the Ghent Foot model permits intersegment, in vivo motion measurement of the foot, which is crucial for both clinical and research applications
Keywords
GAIT ANALYSIS, OVERUSE INJURY, foot and ankle kinematics, multi-segment foot model, gait analysis, Ghent Foot Model, MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH, STANCE PHASE, ANKLE KINEMATICS, 1ST RAY, REARFOOT MOTION, 3-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS, WALKING, MOVEMENT

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Chicago
De Mits, Sophie, Veerle Segers, Jim Woodburn, Dirk Elewaut, Dirk De Clercq, and Philip Roosen. 2012. “A Clinically Applicable Six-segmented Foot Model.” Journal of Orthopaedic Research 30 (4): 655–661.
APA
De Mits, S., Segers, V., Woodburn, J., Elewaut, D., De Clercq, D., & Roosen, P. (2012). A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, 30(4), 655–661.
Vancouver
1.
De Mits S, Segers V, Woodburn J, Elewaut D, De Clercq D, Roosen P. A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH. 2012;30(4):655–61.
MLA
De Mits, Sophie, Veerle Segers, Jim Woodburn, et al. “A Clinically Applicable Six-segmented Foot Model.” JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH 30.4 (2012): 655–661. Print.
@article{2094709,
  abstract     = {We describe a multi-segmented foot model comprising lower leg, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and hallux for routine use in a clinical setting. The Ghent Foot Model describes the kinematic patterns of functional units of the foot, especially the midfoot, to investigate patient populations where midfoot deformation or dysfunction is an important feature, for example, rheumatoid arthritis patients. Data were obtained from surface markers by a 6 camera motion capture system at 500 Hz. Ten healthy subjects walked barefoot along a 12 m walkway at self-selected speed. Joint angles (rearfoot to shank, midfoot to rearfoot, lateral and medial forefoot to midfoot, and hallux to medial forefoot) in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane are reported according to anatomically based reference frames. These angles were calculated and reported during the foot rollover phases in stance, detected by synchronized plantar pressure measurements. Repeated measurements of each subject revealed low intra-subject variability, varying between 0.7 degrees and 2.3 degrees for the minimum values, between 0.5 degrees and 2.1 degrees for the maximum values, and between 0.8 degrees and 5.8 degrees for the ROM. The described movement patterns were repeatable and consistent with biomechanical and clinical knowledge. As such, the Ghent Foot model permits intersegment, in vivo motion measurement of the foot, which is crucial for both clinical and research applications},
  author       = {De Mits, Sophie and Segers, Veerle and Woodburn, Jim and Elewaut, Dirk and De Clercq, Dirk and Roosen, Philip},
  issn         = {0736-0266},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {GAIT ANALYSIS,OVERUSE INJURY,foot and ankle kinematics,multi-segment foot model,gait analysis,Ghent Foot Model,MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH,STANCE PHASE,ANKLE KINEMATICS,1ST RAY,REARFOOT MOTION,3-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS,WALKING,MOVEMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {655--661},
  title        = {A clinically applicable six-segmented foot model},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.21570},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2012},
}

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