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Impact of agricultural practices on the Zea mays L. endophytic community

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Abstract
Agricultural practices are known to alter bulk soil microbial communities, but little is known about the effect of such practices on the plant endophytic community. We assessed the influence of long-term applications (20 years) of herbicides and different fertilizer types on the endophytic community of maize plants grown in different field experiments. Nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses targeting general bacteria, type I or II methanotrophs, actinomycetes, and general fungi were used to fingerprint the endophytic community in the roots of Zea mays L. Low intraplant variability (reproducible DGGE patterns) was observed for the bacterial, type I methanotroph, and fungal communities, whereas the patterns for endophytic actinomycetes exhibited high intraplant variability. No endophytic amplification product was obtained for type 11 methanotrophs. Cluster and stability analysis of the endophytic type I methanotroph patterns differentiated maize plants cultivated by using mineral fertilizer from plants cultivated by using organic fertilizer with a 100% success rate. In addition, lower methanotroph richness was observed for mineral-fertilized plants than for organically fertilized plants. The use of herbicides could not be traced by fingerprinting the endophytic type I methanotrophs or by evaluating any other endophytic microbial group. Our results indicate that the effect of agrochemicals is not limited to the bulk microbial community but also includes the root endophytic community. It is not clear if this effect is due to a direct effect on the root endophytic community or is due to changes in the bulk community, which are then reflected in the root endophytic community.
Keywords
GRADIENT GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS, 16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA, METHANE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA, MOLECULAR ANALYSES, SOIL, DIVERSITY, ROOTS, GENES, PCR, POTATO

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Citation

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Chicago
Seghers, Dave, Lieven Wittebolle, Eva M Top, Willy Verstraete, and Steven D Siciliano. 2004. “Impact of Agricultural Practices on the Zea Mays L. Endophytic Community.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70 (3): 1475–1482.
APA
Seghers, Dave, Wittebolle, L., Top, E. M., Verstraete, W., & Siciliano, S. D. (2004). Impact of agricultural practices on the Zea mays L. endophytic community. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 70(3), 1475–1482.
Vancouver
1.
Seghers D, Wittebolle L, Top EM, Verstraete W, Siciliano SD. Impact of agricultural practices on the Zea mays L. endophytic community. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. 2004;70(3):1475–82.
MLA
Seghers, Dave, Lieven Wittebolle, Eva M Top, et al. “Impact of Agricultural Practices on the Zea Mays L. Endophytic Community.” APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 70.3 (2004): 1475–1482. Print.
@article{209171,
  abstract     = {Agricultural practices are known to alter bulk soil microbial communities, but little is known about the effect of such practices on the plant endophytic community. We assessed the influence of long-term applications (20 years) of herbicides and different fertilizer types on the endophytic community of maize plants grown in different field experiments. Nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses targeting general bacteria, type I or II methanotrophs, actinomycetes, and general fungi were used to fingerprint the endophytic community in the roots of Zea mays L. Low intraplant variability (reproducible DGGE patterns) was observed for the bacterial, type I methanotroph, and fungal communities, whereas the patterns for endophytic actinomycetes exhibited high intraplant variability. No endophytic amplification product was obtained for type 11 methanotrophs. Cluster and stability analysis of the endophytic type I methanotroph patterns differentiated maize plants cultivated by using mineral fertilizer from plants cultivated by using organic fertilizer with a 100\% success rate. In addition, lower methanotroph richness was observed for mineral-fertilized plants than for organically fertilized plants. The use of herbicides could not be traced by fingerprinting the endophytic type I methanotrophs or by evaluating any other endophytic microbial group. Our results indicate that the effect of agrochemicals is not limited to the bulk microbial community but also includes the root endophytic community. It is not clear if this effect is due to a direct effect on the root endophytic community or is due to changes in the bulk community, which are then reflected in the root endophytic community.},
  author       = {Seghers, Dave and Wittebolle, Lieven and Top, Eva M and Verstraete, Willy and Siciliano, Steven D},
  issn         = {0099-2240},
  journal      = {APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {GRADIENT GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS,16S RIBOSOMAL-RNA,METHANE-OXIDIZING BACTERIA,MOLECULAR ANALYSES,SOIL,DIVERSITY,ROOTS,GENES,PCR,POTATO},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1475--1482},
  title        = {Impact of agricultural practices on the Zea mays L. endophytic community},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.3.1475-1482.2004},
  volume       = {70},
  year         = {2004},
}

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