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Parent and child ratings of satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent boys and girls with unilateral cleft lip and palate

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Abstract
The purpose of this controlled study is to determine satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Forty-three subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 43 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. The Cleft Evaluation Profile was used to assess the perceived satisfaction for individual features related to cleft care. Both the cleft palate subjects and their parents were satisfied with the speech and facial appearance. The Pearson chi(2) test revealed significant difference between the cleft palate and the control group regarding hearing, nasal aesthetics and function, and the appearance of the lip. An in depth analysis of well specified speech characteristics revealed that children with clefts and their parents significantly more often reported the presence of an articulation, voice and resonance disorder and experienced /s/ /r/ /t/ and /d/ as the most difficult consonants. To what extent the incorporation of specific motor oriented oral speech techniques regarding the realisation of specific consonants, attention to vocal and ear care, and the recommendation of secondary velopharyngeal surgery, with the incorporation of primary correction of the cleft nose deformity simultaneously with primary lip closure, will aid these patients are future research subjects.
Keywords
cleft palate, Ycongenital craniofacial deformities, facial appearance, satisfaction, YOUNG-ADULTS, intelligibility, PALATOPLASTY, INTELLIGIBILITY, unilateral cleft palate, speech

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MLA
Van Lierde, Kristiane, Evelien D’haeseleer, Anke Luyten, et al. “Parent and Child Ratings of Satisfaction with Speech and Facial Appearance in Flemish Pre-pubescent Boys and Girls with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY 41.2 (2012): 192–199. Print.
APA
Van Lierde, Kristiane, D’haeseleer, E., Luyten, A., Van De Woestijne, K., Vermeersch, H., & Roche, N. (2012). Parent and child ratings of satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent boys and girls with unilateral cleft lip and palate. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY, 41(2), 192–199.
Chicago author-date
Van Lierde, Kristiane, Evelien D’haeseleer, Anke Luyten, K Van De Woestijne, Hubert Vermeersch, and Nathalie Roche. 2012. “Parent and Child Ratings of Satisfaction with Speech and Facial Appearance in Flemish Pre-pubescent Boys and Girls with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41 (2): 192–199.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Lierde, Kristiane, Evelien D’haeseleer, Anke Luyten, K Van De Woestijne, Hubert Vermeersch, and Nathalie Roche. 2012. “Parent and Child Ratings of Satisfaction with Speech and Facial Appearance in Flemish Pre-pubescent Boys and Girls with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41 (2): 192–199.
Vancouver
1.
Van Lierde K, D’haeseleer E, Luyten A, Van De Woestijne K, Vermeersch H, Roche N. Parent and child ratings of satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent boys and girls with unilateral cleft lip and palate. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY. 2012;41(2):192–9.
IEEE
[1]
K. Van Lierde, E. D’haeseleer, A. Luyten, K. Van De Woestijne, H. Vermeersch, and N. Roche, “Parent and child ratings of satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent boys and girls with unilateral cleft lip and palate,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 2012.
@article{2086702,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this controlled study is to determine satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Forty-three subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 43 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. The Cleft Evaluation Profile was used to assess the perceived satisfaction for individual features related to cleft care. Both the cleft palate subjects and their parents were satisfied with the speech and facial appearance. The Pearson chi(2) test revealed significant difference between the cleft palate and the control group regarding hearing, nasal aesthetics and function, and the appearance of the lip. An in depth analysis of well specified speech characteristics revealed that children with clefts and their parents significantly more often reported the presence of an articulation, voice and resonance disorder and experienced /s/ /r/ /t/ and /d/ as the most difficult consonants. To what extent the incorporation of specific motor oriented oral speech techniques regarding the realisation of specific consonants, attention to vocal and ear care, and the recommendation of secondary velopharyngeal surgery, with the incorporation of primary correction of the cleft nose deformity simultaneously with primary lip closure, will aid these patients are future research subjects.},
  author       = {Van Lierde, Kristiane and D'haeseleer, Evelien and Luyten, Anke and Van De Woestijne, K and Vermeersch, Hubert and Roche, Nathalie},
  issn         = {0901-5027},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY},
  keywords     = {cleft palate,Ycongenital craniofacial deformities,facial appearance,satisfaction,YOUNG-ADULTS,intelligibility,PALATOPLASTY,INTELLIGIBILITY,unilateral cleft palate,speech},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {192--199},
  title        = {Parent and child ratings of satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Flemish pre-pubescent boys and girls with unilateral cleft lip and palate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2011.10.030},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2012},
}

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