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Oesophageal electrocardiography in healthy horses

Tinne Verheyen (UGent) , Annelies Decloedt (UGent) , Dominique De Clercq (UGent) , Stanislas Sys (UGent) and Gunther van Loon (UGent)
(2012) EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 44(6). p.640-645
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Organization
Abstract
Reasons for performing study: In human medicine, esophageal electrocardiography (ECG) is a well-established technique that magnifies P waves with respect to the QRS complex. Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of esophageal ECG recording and its ability to produce larger P waves compared to base-apex and unipolar recordings. Methods: Bipolar and unipolar ECG were performed using esophageal and surface electrodes. Esophageal ECG was obtained from six different recording configurations at different esophageal depths. Amplitudes of P, Q, R, S and T waves were measured from three different cardiac cycles for each recording configuration and depth. Results: Esophageal ECG was feasible in all horses. For all esophageal recording configurations, significantly larger P waves were recorded from a depth that equaled ‘height of the withers +10 cm’ (HW+10) than from any other depth. P/QRSmagn, the ratio between the P wave and QRS complex magnitudes, was largest for intra-esophageal recordings with an interelectrode distance of 10 cm, at HW+10, where it was significantly larger than base-apex and unipolar recordings. Base-apex recording resulted in significantly smaller P waves than all other recording configurations and significantly smaller P/QRSmagn ratios than all other recording configurations except one combined esophageal-surface recording (E/Slow). Conclusions: Esophageal ECG recording is feasible in horses and effective in magnifying P wave amplitude. Potential relevance: The procedure is promising for diagnosis of supraventricular tachydysrhythmias and might be used in electrophysiological studies and for cardiac pacing.
Keywords
cardiology, horse, electrodes, unipolar, ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION, ELECTRODE, ECG, CATHETER, LEADS, WAVE

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Chicago
Verheyen, Tinne, Annelies Decloedt, Dominique De Clercq, Stanislas Sys, and Gunther van Loon. 2012. “Oesophageal Electrocardiography in Healthy Horses.” Equine Veterinary Journal 44 (6): 640–645.
APA
Verheyen, Tinne, Decloedt, A., De Clercq, D., Sys, S., & van Loon, G. (2012). Oesophageal electrocardiography in healthy horses. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, 44(6), 640–645.
Vancouver
1.
Verheyen T, Decloedt A, De Clercq D, Sys S, van Loon G. Oesophageal electrocardiography in healthy horses. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 2012;44(6):640–5.
MLA
Verheyen, Tinne, Annelies Decloedt, Dominique De Clercq, et al. “Oesophageal Electrocardiography in Healthy Horses.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL 44.6 (2012): 640–645. Print.
@article{2082758,
  abstract     = {Reasons for performing study: In human medicine, esophageal electrocardiography (ECG) is a well-established technique that magnifies P waves with respect to the QRS complex.
Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of esophageal ECG recording and its ability to produce larger P waves compared to base-apex and unipolar recordings.
Methods: Bipolar and unipolar ECG were performed using esophageal and surface electrodes. Esophageal ECG was obtained from six different recording configurations at different esophageal depths. Amplitudes of P, Q, R, S and T waves were measured from three different cardiac cycles for each recording configuration and depth.
Results: Esophageal ECG was feasible in all horses. For all esophageal recording configurations, significantly larger P waves were recorded from a depth that equaled {\textquoteleft}height of the withers +10 cm{\textquoteright} (HW+10) than from any other depth. P/QRSmagn, the ratio between the P wave and QRS complex magnitudes, was largest for intra-esophageal recordings with an interelectrode distance of 10 cm, at HW+10, where it was significantly larger than base-apex and unipolar recordings. Base-apex recording resulted in significantly smaller P waves than all other recording configurations and significantly smaller P/QRSmagn ratios than all other recording configurations except one combined esophageal-surface recording (E/Slow).
Conclusions: Esophageal ECG recording is feasible in horses and effective in magnifying P wave amplitude. 
Potential relevance: The procedure is promising for diagnosis of supraventricular tachydysrhythmias and might be used in electrophysiological studies and for cardiac pacing.},
  author       = {Verheyen, Tinne and Decloedt, Annelies and De Clercq, Dominique and Sys, Stanislas and van Loon, Gunther},
  issn         = {0425-1644},
  journal      = {EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {cardiology,horse,electrodes,unipolar,ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION,ELECTRODE,ECG,CATHETER,LEADS,WAVE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {640--645},
  title        = {Oesophageal electrocardiography in healthy horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00526.x},
  volume       = {44},
  year         = {2012},
}

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