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Invited review: mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control

Sarne De Vliegher UGent, LK Fox, Sofie Piepers UGent, S McDougall and Herman Barkema UGent (2012) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 95(3). p.1025-1040
abstract
Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aurens and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer rnastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development of specific intervention strategies designed to prevent the disease. Pathogen-specific risk factors and associated control measures need to be identified due to the pathogen-related variation in epidemiology and effect on future performance. Prepartum intramammary treatment with antibiotics has been proposed as a simple and effective way of controlling heifer mastitis but positive long-lasting effects on somatic cell count and milk yield do not always occur, ruling out universal recommendation of this practice. Moreover, use of antibiotics in this manner is off-label and results in an increased risk of antibiotic residues in milk. Prepartum treatment can be implemented only as a short-term measure to assist in the control of a significant heifer mastitis problem under supervision of the herd veterinarian. When CNS are the major cause of intramammary infection in heifers, productivity is not affected, making prepartum treatment redundant and even unwanted. In conclusion, heifer mastitis can affect the profitability of dairy farming because of a potential long-term negative effect on udder health and milk production and an associated culling risk, specifically when major pathogens are involved. Prevention and control is not easy but is possible through changes in young stock and heifer management. However, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease remain largely unknown and more pathogen-specific risk factors should be identified to optimize current prevention programs.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (review)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
MAMMARY-GLAND HEALTH, PREPARTUM ANTIBIOTIC-THERAPY, CLINICAL MASTITIS, EARLY-LACTATION, INTRAMAMMARY INFECTIONS, UDDER HEALTH, AUREUS-INDUCED MASTITIS, VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION, control, SOMATIC-CELL COUNT, COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI, prevention, heifer mastitis, impact
journal title
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
J. Dairy Sci.
volume
95
issue
3
pages
1025 - 1040
Web of Science type
Review
Web of Science id
000300531500001
JCR category
AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
JCR impact factor
2.566 (2012)
JCR rank
3/54 (2012)
JCR quartile
1 (2012)
ISSN
0022-0302
DOI
10.3168/jds.2010-4074
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
2082251
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-2082251
date created
2012-04-06 15:54:47
date last changed
2012-04-06 16:58:09
@article{2082251,
  abstract     = {Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aurens and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer rnastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development of specific intervention strategies designed to prevent the disease. Pathogen-specific risk factors and associated control measures need to be identified due to the pathogen-related variation in epidemiology and effect on future performance. Prepartum intramammary treatment with antibiotics has been proposed as a simple and effective way of controlling heifer mastitis but positive long-lasting effects on somatic cell count and milk yield do not always occur, ruling out universal recommendation of this practice. Moreover, use of antibiotics in this manner is off-label and results in an increased risk of antibiotic residues in milk. Prepartum treatment can be implemented only as a short-term measure to assist in the control of a significant heifer mastitis problem under supervision of the herd veterinarian. When CNS are the major cause of intramammary infection in heifers, productivity is not affected, making prepartum treatment redundant and even unwanted. In conclusion, heifer mastitis can affect the profitability of dairy farming because of a potential long-term negative effect on udder health and milk production and an associated culling risk, specifically when major pathogens are involved. Prevention and control is not easy but is possible through changes in young stock and heifer management. However, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease remain largely unknown and more pathogen-specific risk factors should be identified to optimize current prevention programs.},
  author       = {De Vliegher, Sarne and Fox, LK and Piepers, Sofie and McDougall, S and Barkema, Herman},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {MAMMARY-GLAND HEALTH,PREPARTUM ANTIBIOTIC-THERAPY,CLINICAL MASTITIS,EARLY-LACTATION,INTRAMAMMARY INFECTIONS,UDDER HEALTH,AUREUS-INDUCED MASTITIS,VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION,control,SOMATIC-CELL COUNT,COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI,prevention,heifer mastitis,impact},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1025--1040},
  title        = {Invited review: mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-4074},
  volume       = {95},
  year         = {2012},
}

Chicago
De Vliegher, Sarne, LK Fox, Sofie Piepers, S McDougall, and Herman Barkema. 2012. “Invited Review: Mastitis in Dairy Heifers: Nature of the Disease, Potential Impact, Prevention, and Control.” Journal of Dairy Science 95 (3): 1025–1040.
APA
De Vliegher, Sarne, Fox, L., Piepers, S., McDougall, S., & Barkema, H. (2012). Invited review: mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 95(3), 1025–1040.
Vancouver
1.
De Vliegher S, Fox L, Piepers S, McDougall S, Barkema H. Invited review: mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2012;95(3):1025–40.
MLA
De Vliegher, Sarne, LK Fox, Sofie Piepers, et al. “Invited Review: Mastitis in Dairy Heifers: Nature of the Disease, Potential Impact, Prevention, and Control.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 95.3 (2012): 1025–1040. Print.